分类目录归档:docker

API 网关 Kong

从前开发一个互联网服务程序,大概可以在一台机器上完成:数据库、应用都在一起。随着业务发展壮大,会把数据库独立出来,以便扩展拆分。然后再把一部分公用业务独立出来扩展,譬如文件存储、缓存等。接着业务也才拆分,比如会员、商品。微服务大行其道,各个团队维护着许多服务、API。这么多服务,前端业务逻辑该怎么接入呢?
如今单一的前端UI也可能是多个团队共同开发的结果。当你在本地开发一个小功能时,甚至会牵扯到多个前端UI/后端API。一个前端页面除了加载自己的资源外,还加载V2/V3的API(为什么会同时存在V1/V2/V3的API),甚至嵌入了另外一个页面(React看起来也不错),该怎么调试这种混合开发呢?cookie都传递不过去,好吧,使用JWT代替,再设置一下跨源资源共享(CORS)。。。但是那些旧的应用怎么办?
当我们启动一个Node.js应用时npm run start,默认监听3000端口。当然我们也可以让它监听80端口。但是当我们多开几个应用时,只好让它们都监听不同端口了,怎么样才能统一端口监听呢?当然Node.js可以通过诸如node-http-proxy来转发这些请求,但是代理转发跟应用业务无关吧?如果是其他编程语言呢?都重复这些代理配置/开发吗?Don’t Repeat Yourself。
Faas也日渐流行,比如AWS Lambda, 强调仅仅专注某个功能,根据事件驱动进行计算,那么每个服务也要开发一整套路由分发/认证/日志吗?
这些问题可以使用反向代理来解决,提供统一的服务入口,对前端/客户端隐藏背后的细节,最简单的当然是Nginx。Nginx监听来自某个端口(比如80)的请求,然后根据不同的来源/端口/域名/url分发给不同的后端服务器。这看起来跟云服务厂商各自开发的负载均衡器差不多,比如AWS ELB
在本地开发的时候,我们当然不会使用ELB来解决。直接使用Nginx当然也没啥问题,编辑一下配置文件,重启应用。但是如果有个UI就更好了,如果还有API就非常好了-这样就能方便的在线注册/更改路由而不需要重启服务器,在这个快速发展、弹性开发的年代更需要这个能力。
Kong是一个基于OpenResty的网关服务器,可以进行路由(转发/负载),插件(日志/认证/监控)管理,并提供RESTful API。而OpenResty 是一个基于Nginx与Lua的高性能Web平台,使用Lua来构建动态网关。听起来像是在Nginx上面编程,这跟在Apache上面使用PHP模块进行编程有什么区别?最大的区别在于,这里的编程对象是Nginx(或者公共模块),扩展Nginx能力,比如负载均衡/日志/认证/监控,而不是输出web页面/业务逻辑。这些东西抽出来以后,就不需要每个模块再重复开发了,比如认证/安全。
在本地可以使用docker来运行Kong服务,麻烦在于数据库迁移工作。通常部署Kong需要几个步骤,比如初始化数据库,迁移升级等等。网上的配置大都过时了,这里可以使用官方提供docker-compose.yml来做数据库工作,并且使用Konga作为管理UI

➜  kong ls
POSTGRES_PASSWORD         data                      docker-compose.yml
➜  kong ls data
postgresql
➜  kong cat POSTGRES_PASSWORD
kong
➜  kong cat docker-compose.yml
version: '3.7'

volumes:
  kong_data: {}

networks:
  kong-net:
    external: false

services:
  kong-migrations:
    image: "${KONG_DOCKER_TAG:-kong:latest}"
    command: kong migrations bootstrap
    depends_on:
      - db
    environment:
      KONG_DATABASE: postgres
      KONG_PG_DATABASE: ${KONG_PG_DATABASE:-kong}
      KONG_PG_HOST: db
      KONG_PG_USER: ${KONG_PG_USER:-kong}
      KONG_PG_PASSWORD_FILE: /run/secrets/kong_postgres_password
    secrets:
      - kong_postgres_password
    networks:
      - kong-net
    restart: on-failure
    deploy:
      restart_policy:
        condition: on-failure

  kong-migrations-up:
    image: "${KONG_DOCKER_TAG:-kong:latest}"
    command: kong migrations up && kong migrations finish
    depends_on:
      - db
    environment:
      KONG_DATABASE: postgres
      KONG_PG_DATABASE: ${KONG_PG_DATABASE:-kong}
      KONG_PG_HOST: db
      KONG_PG_USER: ${KONG_PG_USER:-kong}
      KONG_PG_PASSWORD_FILE: /run/secrets/kong_postgres_password
    secrets:
      - kong_postgres_password
    networks:
      - kong-net
    restart: on-failure
    deploy:
      restart_policy:
        condition: on-failure

  kong:
    image: "${KONG_DOCKER_TAG:-kong:latest}"
    user: "${KONG_USER:-kong}"
    depends_on:
      - db
    environment:
      KONG_ADMIN_ACCESS_LOG: /dev/stdout
      KONG_ADMIN_ERROR_LOG: /dev/stderr
      KONG_ADMIN_LISTEN: '0.0.0.0:8001'
      KONG_CASSANDRA_CONTACT_POINTS: db
      KONG_DATABASE: postgres
      KONG_PG_DATABASE: ${KONG_PG_DATABASE:-kong}
      KONG_PG_HOST: db
      KONG_PG_USER: ${KONG_PG_USER:-kong}
      KONG_PROXY_ACCESS_LOG: /dev/stdout
      KONG_PROXY_ERROR_LOG: /dev/stderr
      KONG_PG_PASSWORD_FILE: /run/secrets/kong_postgres_password
    secrets:
      - kong_postgres_password
    networks:
      - kong-net
    ports:
      - "8000:8000/tcp"
      - "127.0.0.1:8001:8001/tcp"
      - "8443:8443/tcp"
      - "127.0.0.1:8444:8444/tcp"
    healthcheck:
      test: ["CMD", "kong", "health"]
      interval: 10s
      timeout: 10s
      retries: 10
    restart: on-failure
    deploy:
      restart_policy:
        condition: on-failure

  db:
    image: postgres:9.5
    environment:
      POSTGRES_DB: ${KONG_PG_DATABASE:-kong}
      POSTGRES_USER: ${KONG_PG_USER:-kong}
      POSTGRES_PASSWORD_FILE: /run/secrets/kong_postgres_password
    secrets:
      - kong_postgres_password
    healthcheck:
      test: ["CMD", "pg_isready", "-U", "${KONG_PG_USER:-kong}"]
      interval: 30s
      timeout: 30s
      retries: 3
    restart: on-failure
    deploy:
      restart_policy:
        condition: on-failure
    stdin_open: true
    tty: true
    networks:
      - kong-net
    volumes:
      - /Users/xxxx/docker/kong/data/postgresql:/var/lib/postgresql/data

  konga:
    image: pantsel/konga
    environment:
      TOKEN_SECRET: channing.token
      DB_ADAPTER: postgres
      DB_HOST: db
      DB_USER: ${KONG_PG_USER:-kong}
      DB_PASSWORD: kong
      DB_DATABASE: ${KONG_PG_DATABASE:-kong}
    ports:
     - 1337:1337
    networks:
     - kong-net

    depends_on:
      - db

secrets:
  kong_postgres_password:
    file: ./POSTGRES_PASSWORD

运行docker-composer up就可以看到

➜  kong docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                             COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS                             PORTS                                                                                                NAMES
20ebe7885c0d        kong:latest                       "/docker-entrypoint.…"   2 hours ago         Up 11 seconds (healthy)            0.0.0.0:8000->8000/tcp, 127.0.0.1:8001->8001/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8443->8443/tcp, 127.0.0.1:8444->8444/tcp   kong_kong_1
4a7a39c863ae        pantsel/konga                     "/app/start.sh"          2 hours ago         Up 11 seconds                      0.0.0.0:1337->1337/tcp                                                                               kong_konga_1
aa732758fc51        postgres:9.5                      "docker-entrypoint.s…"   2 hours ago         Up 11 seconds (health: starting)   5432/tcp                                                                                             kong_db_1

访问http://127.0.0.1:1337/即可以进入Konga 管理界面了。8000/8443端口是需要监听转发的端口,8001/8444则是Kong RESTFUl管理API的端口。这里也可以把8000/8443改为80/443,这样访问的时候就可以直接使用域名/localhost而不必加端口了。
注册登录进去后首先要添加Kong RESTFUl管理API的地址,这里使用的是docker环境,IP是动态分配的,所以使用链接名就可以了

连接上Kong API后可以看到dashboard列出了支持的插件

Kong里面的管理对象是service,路由转发/插件都是围绕service展开的,添加一个service


在它上面添加一个路由,这里我们在服务只监听以/api开头的url,并转发到后端服务器去


注意这里在route里面的path里面也需要添加/api,否则转发的时候会出错(多拼api)。最简单就是service监听不指定path,在route里指定。一个service下面可以有多个转发路由,每个可以独立管理、设置超时等。
还可以为每个service绑定不同的插件进行处理,比如认证/安全/日志等等,这样就不用在不同的系统里面重复开发这些功能,使得各个团队更加专注也本业务开发


有效插件还可以进行流量限制、请求头/响应头修改等等。这些插件的功能需要基于consumer来开发管理,功能可以非常强大,详细可以参考文档
Kong还有一项功能Upstream配置,与Nginx的ngx_http_upstream_module差不多,可以作为负载均衡、流量分发控制使用。可以用命令行测试基于hostname的路由,

➜  kong curl -i -X GET \
  --url http://localhost:8000/ \
  --header 'Host: dev1.example.com'
HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
Date: Tue, 27 Oct 2020 08:41:58 GMT
Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 48
X-Kong-Response-Latency: 1
Server: kong/2.1.4

{"message":"no Route matched with those values"}                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ➜  kong curl -i -X GET \
  --url http://localhost:8000/ \
  --header 'Host: dev.example.com'

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Connection: keep-alive
Date: Tue, 27 Oct 2020 08:42:21 GMT
Server: Apache/2.2.15 (CentOS)
X-Powered-By: PHP/5.6.40
Set-Cookie: PHPSESSID=0uc3aoc735j21sk3ni5s72vjc1; path=/
Expires: Thu, 19 Nov 1981 08:52:00 GMT
Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0
Pragma: no-cache
Access-Control-Allow-Credentials: true
Access-Control-Allow-Methods: POST, GET, OPTIONS, PUT, DELETE
Access-Control-Allow-Headers: X-CSRF-Token,Authorization,X-Accept-Charset,X-Accept,Content-Type
X-Kong-Upstream-Latency: 8397
X-Kong-Proxy-Latency: 0
Via: kong/2.1.4

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
...

作为一个API网关,Kong能做的很多。如果只是在本地简单的做反向代理,可以使用nginx-proxy-manager,这也是一个基于Nginx开发的网关,根据WEB UI动态生成Nginx配置文件,然后执行/usr/sbin/nginx -s reload生效。有些参数不能通过UI配置(比如超时设置),可以直接写Nginx配置,upstream则支持直接转发tcp请求,支持websockets代理转发,甚至集成了Let’s encrypt自动申请SSL证书(需要验证域名)


本地同样可以使用docker跑起来,默认监听80/443端口,81端口即管理界面

➜  nginx-proxy-manager ls -lah
total 16
drwxr-xr-x   6 xxxx domain users   192B Sep 29 10:24 .
drwxr-xr-x  15 xxxx domain users   480B Sep 29 09:15 ..
-rw-r--r--   1 xxxx domain users   2.3K Sep 29 09:42 config.json
drwxr-xr-x   8 xxxx domain users   256B Sep 29 09:31 data
-rw-r--r--   1 xxxx domain users   740B Sep 29 10:24 docker-compose.yml
drwxr-xr-x   3 xxxx domain users    96B Oct 27 16:38 letsencrypt
➜  nginx-proxy-manager cat docker-compose.yml
version: "3"
services:
  app:
    image: 'jc21/nginx-proxy-manager:latest'
    restart: always
    ports:
      # Public HTTP Port:
      - '80:80'
      # Public HTTPS Port:
      - '443:443'
      # Admin Web Port:
      - '81:81'
      # TCP Forward Example:
      - '8022:8022'
    volumes:
      # Make sure this config.json file exists as per instructions above:
      - ./config.json:/app/config/production.json
      - ./data:/data
      - ./letsencrypt:/etc/letsencrypt
    depends_on:
      - db
  db:
    image: jc21/mariadb-aria
    restart: always
    environment:
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: 'npm'
      MYSQL_DATABASE: 'npm'
      MYSQL_USER: 'npm'
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: 'npm'
    volumes:
      - ./data/mysql:/var/lib/mysql
➜  nginx-proxy-manager docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                             COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS                PORTS                                                                    NAMES
3dd58e9cff1f        jc21/nginx-proxy-manager:latest   "/init"             4 weeks ago         Up 7 days (healthy)   0.0.0.0:80-81->80-81/tcp, 0.0.0.0:443->443/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8022->8022/tcp   nginx-proxy-manager_app_1
a033151b28ed        jc21/mariadb-aria                 "/scripts/run.sh"   4 weeks ago         Up 7 days             3306/tcp                                                                 nginx-proxy-manager_db_1

nginx-proxy-manager会将配置写在data目录下面,可以直接编辑这些文件,Nginx reload之后便会生效,可以看到这些文件,具体的加载规则参考文档

➜  nginx-proxy-manager ls data/nginx
dead_host        default_host     default_www      dummycert.pem    dummykey.pem     proxy_host       redirection_host stream           temp
➜  nginx-proxy-manager cat data/nginx/proxy_host/1.conf
# ------------------------------------------------------------
# dev.example.com
# ------------------------------------------------------------
server {
  set $forward_scheme http;
  set $server         "192.168.33.14";
  set $port           80;

  listen 80;
listen [::]:80;

  server_name dev.example.com;

  access_log /data/logs/proxy_host-1.log proxy;

proxy_connect_timeout 600;
proxy_send_timeout 600;
proxy_read_timeout 600;
send_timeout 600;

  location /Login {
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Scheme $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto  $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For    $remote_addr;
    proxy_pass       https://login.example.com:443;

  }

  location /api/v2 {
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Scheme $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto  $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For    $remote_addr;
    proxy_pass       http://192.168.33.14:9070;

  }

  location /api/v3 {
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Scheme $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto  $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For    $remote_addr;
    proxy_pass       https://dev.ops.example.com:443;

  }

  location /Chat {
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Scheme $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto  $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For    $remote_addr;
    proxy_pass       https://dev.ops.example.com:443;

  }

  location /Catalog {
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Scheme $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto  $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For    $remote_addr;
    proxy_pass       http://192.168.33.1:3000;

  }

  location /static {
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Scheme $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto  $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For    $remote_addr;
    proxy_pass       http://192.168.33.1:3000;

  }

  location /css {
    proxy_set_header Host $host;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Scheme $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto  $scheme;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For    $remote_addr;
    proxy_pass       http://192.168.33.1:3000;

  }

  location / {

    # Proxy!
    include conf.d/include/proxy.conf;
  }

  # Custom
  include /data/nginx/custom/server_proxy[.]conf;
}

➜  nginx-proxy-manager cat data/nginx/stream/1.conf
# ------------------------------------------------------------
# 8022 TCP: 1 UDP: 0
# ------------------------------------------------------------
server {
  listen 8022;
listen [::]:8022;

  proxy_pass 192.168.33.14:22;

  # Custom
  include /data/nginx/custom/server_stream[.]conf;
  include /data/nginx/custom/server_stream_tcp[.]conf;
}

在docker-compose.yml里面设置一下upstream监听转发的端口,就可以通过8022端口访问192.168.33.14的22端口了

➜  nginx-proxy-manager telnet 127.0.0.1 8022
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_5.3
^C^C^C^C^C^C^CConnection closed by foreign host.

不论是Kong还是nginx-proxy-manager均有提供API,极大的增强服务网关的可编程性,为动态上线/弹性扩展/自动化运维提供了便利。

参考链接:
从IaaS到FaaS—— Serverless架构的前世今生
聊一聊微服务网关 Kong
KONG网关 — KongA管理UI使用
云原生架构下的 API 网关实践: Kong (二)
微服务 API 网关 -Kong 详解
Creating a web API with Lua using Nginx OpenResty
Nginx基于TCP/UDP端口的四层负载均衡(stream模块)配置梳理
Nginx支持TCP代理和负载均衡-stream模块
聊聊 API Gateway 和 Netflix Zuul
Envoy 是什么?

Nginx + Frp/Ngrok反向代理Webhook至本地

跟第三方平台打交道,经常需要设置一个接受通知的Webhook,比如微信/Skype的回调。它们要求有一个可以在互联网上访问得了的入口,比如某个域名,如果是在本地开发的话,不好调试。通常使用花生壳来代理本地服务,但是花生壳有一些限制,比如端口。有些域名服务商,比如DNSPOD,Linode,提供相应的API,也可以自己搭建DDNS服务,但是也可能有端口访问限制。Frp/Ngrok都是Go语言开发的内网穿透工具,可以自己部署搭建。Frp是国人开发的一款反向代理软件,可以转发请求给位于NAT后面的机器,支持TCP,UDP,HTTP/HTTPS。Ngrok则是国外的一款内网穿透软件,也支持HTTP/HTTPS转发。这里使用Nginx作为反向代理服务器,接收互联网回调并转发给本地的Frp/Ngrok服务,由它们接收webhook请求并转发至本地开发环境。
前面使用OpenVpn搭建了私有网络,可以在Nginx里面配置转发给目标机器就可以了

vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/100-dev.example.conf

内容如下

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name dev.example.com;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}

server {

    listen 443;
    server_name dev.example.com;

    ssl_certificate           /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/cert.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key       /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;

    ssl on;
    ssl_session_cache  builtin:1000  shared:SSL:10m;
    ssl_protocols  TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
    ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!eNULL:!EXPORT:!CAMELLIA:!DES:!MD5:!PSK:!RC4;
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

    location / {
      proxy_set_header        Host $host;
      proxy_set_header        X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;

      proxy_pass          http://10.9.0.2/;
      proxy_redirect off;

    }
}

这里使用了let’s encryt的泛域名证书,官方并没有对应的插件,但是DNSPOD有提供相应的API,第三方开发了一个插件自certbot-dns-dnspod,安装这个插件并且配置Dnspod的API Token:

$ yum install certbot python2-certbot-nginx
$ certbot --nginx
$ curl https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py -o get-pip.py
$ pip install certbot-dns-dnspod
$ vim /etc/letsencrypt/dnspod.conf
certbot_dns_dnspod:dns_dnspod_email = "[email protected]"
certbot_dns_dnspod:dns_dnspod_api_token = "123,ca440********"

$ chmod 600 /etc/letsencrypt/dnspod.conf

手动请求证书

$ certbot certonly -a certbot-dns-dnspod:dns-dnspod --certbot-dns-dnspod:dns-dnspod-credentials /etc/letsencrypt/dnspod.conf --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory -d example.com -d "*.example.com"
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Plugins selected: Authenticator certbot-dns-dnspod:dns-dnspod, Installer None
Starting new HTTPS connection (1): acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
dns-01 challenge for example.com
dns-01 challenge for example.com
Starting new HTTPS connection (1): dnsapi.cn
Waiting 10 seconds for DNS changes to propagate
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges
Resetting dropped connection: acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem
   Your key file has been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem
   Your cert will expire on 2019-08-04. To obtain a new or tweaked
   version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot
   again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "certbot renew"
*/1 * * * * /usr/local/qcloud/stargate/admin/start.sh > /dev/null 2>&1 &
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le


$ ls -la /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May  6 12:06 .
drwx------ 3 root root 4096 May  6 12:06 ..
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root   34 May  6 12:06 cert.pem -> ../../archive/example.com/cert1.pem
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root   35 May  6 12:06 chain.pem -> ../../archive/example.com/chain1.pem
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root   39 May  6 12:06 fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/example.com/fullchain1.pem
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root   37 May  6 12:06 privkey.pem -> ../../archive/example.com/privkey1.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  692 May  6 12:06 README

配置证书自动更新

0 0,12 * * * python -c 'import random; import time; time.sleep(random.random() * 3600)' && certbot renew

Frp的开发者已经提供了编译好的frp服务端和客户端,下载即可使用。这里使用docker来运行Frp服务,使用这个Dockerfile,更改版本号为0.26.0,并编译

$ docker build . -t frps:0.26
$ docker images
REPOSITORY           TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
frps                 0.26                8a87cb91d4de        2 hours ago         21.1MB

测试一下SSH代理服务,创建服务端配置文件

mkdir -p frp/conf
vim frp/conf/frps.ini

frps.ini内容

[common]
bind_port = 7000

运行一下frp服务端

#清除先前运行的容器
$ docker rm frp-server
$ docker run --name frp-server -v /root/frp/conf:/conf -p 7000:7000 -p 6000:6000 frps:0.26
2019/04/22 06:41:17 [I] [service.go:136] frps tcp listen on 0.0.0.0:7000
2019/04/22 06:41:17 [I] [root.go:204] Start frps success
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [service.go:337] client login info: ip [110.87.98.82:61894] version [0.26.0] hostname [] os [linux] arch [386]
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [tcp.go:66] [e8783ecea2085e15] [ssh] tcp proxy listen port [6000]
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [control.go:398] [e8783ecea2085e15] new proxy [ssh] success
2019/04/22 06:41:41 [I] [proxy.go:82] [e8783ecea2085e15] [ssh] get a new work connection: [110.*.*.*:61894]

这里映射了2个端口,端口7000是frp服务端监听的端口,以便客户端能够连接上;端口6000是需要服务端监听这个端口,以便提供反向代理服务,比如SSH。如果使用的是腾讯云,相应的端口需要在安全组放行。
客户端直接下对应的包,里面有配置试例。创建本地配置文件frpc.ini如下

[common]
server_addr = 123.*.*.*
server_port = 7000

[ssh]
type = tcp
local_ip = 127.0.0.1
local_port = 22
remote_port = 6000

这个配置即告诉服务端,将服务端的6000端口转发到本地的22端口。本地运行

$ ./frpc -c ./frpc.ini.ssh 
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [service.go:221] login to server success, get run id [e8783ecea2085e15], server udp port [0]
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [proxy_manager.go:137] [e8783ecea2085e15] proxy added: [ssh]
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [control.go:144] [ssh] start proxy success

然后在服务端连接客户端。这里连接的是服务端的6000端口,会被转发给远程(局域网内)主机

[[email protected]]$ ssh -oPort=6000 [email protected]*.*.*
The authenticity of host '[123.*.*.*]:6000 ([123.*.*.*]:6000)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is SHA256:NhBO/PDL***********************.
RSA key fingerprint is MD5:20:70:e2:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '[123.*.*.*]:6000' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
[email protected]*.*.*'s password:
Last login: Mon Apr 22 06:39:07 2019 from 10.0.2.2
[[email protected] ~]$ exit
logout
Connection to 123.*.*.* closed.

Frp转发http服务很简单。在conf目录下创建配置frps.ini监听本机来自8080端口的HTTP请求

[common]
bind_port = 7000
vhost_http_port = 8080

[[email protected]_1_218_centos frp]# docker run --name frp-server -v /root/frp/conf:/conf -p 7000:7000 -p 8080:8080 frps:0.26
2019/05/06 07:26:28 [I] [service.go:136] frps tcp listen on 0.0.0.0:7000
2019/05/06 07:26:28 [I] [service.go:178] http service listen on 0.0.0.0:8080
2019/05/06 07:26:28 [I] [root.go:204] Start frps success
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [service.go:337] client login info: ip [123.*.*.*:56758] version [0.26.0] hostname [] os [linux] arch [386]
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [http.go:72] [19f60a30aa924343] [web] http proxy listen for host [test.example.com] location []
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [control.go:398] [19f60a30aa924343] new proxy [web] success
2019/05/06 07:27:05 [I] [proxy.go:82] [19f60a30aa924343] [web] get a new work connection: [123.*.*.*:56758]
2019/05/06 07:27:05 [I] [proxy.go:82] [19f60a30aa924343] [web] get a new work connection: [123.*.*.*:56758]
2019/05/06 07:27:06 [I] [proxy.go:82] [19f60a30aa924343] [web] get a new work connection: [123.*.*.*:56758]

然后配置Nginx转发请求

$ vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/100-dev.example.conf

    location / {
      proxy_set_header        Host $host;
      proxy_set_header        X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;

      proxy_pass          http://127.0.0.1:8080/;
      proxy_redirect off;

    }

创建本地web传教客户端配置frpc.ini,将来自服务器dev.example.com:8080端口的HTTP请求转发至本地80端口

[common]
server_addr = 123.*.*.*
server_port = 7000

[web]
type = http
local_port = 80
custom_domains = dev.example.com

运行本地客户端

[[email protected] frp]# ./frpc -c ./frpc.ini
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [service.go:221] login to server success, get run id [19f60a30aa924343], server udp port [0]
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [proxy_manager.go:137] [19f60a30aa924343] proxy added: [web]
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [control.go:144] [web] start proxy success
2019/05/06 07:27:37 [E] [control.go:127] work connection closed, EOF
2019/05/06 07:27:37 [I] [control.go:228] control writer is closing
2019/05/06 07:27:37 [I] [service.go:127] try to reconnect to server...

访问dev.example.com既可以看到本地web服务器页面。Frp还可以代理其他请求,也有在它基础上二次加工提供基于token认证的转发服务。
Ngrok 2.0以后不再开源,只能使用1.3版本的搭建。这里使用docker-ngrok来构建。Ngrok构建需要SSL证书,复制刚才生成的letsencypt证书并更改server.sh

$ git clone https://github.com/hteen/docker-ngrok
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem myfiles/base.pem
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem myfiles/fullchain.pem
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem myfiles/privkey.pem

$ vim server.sh
#!/bin/sh
set -e

if [ "${DOMAIN}" == "**None**" ]; then
    echo "Please set DOMAIN"
    exit 1
fi

if [ ! -f "${MY_FILES}/bin/ngrokd" ]; then
    echo "ngrokd is not build,will be build it now..."
    /bin/sh /build.sh
fi


${MY_FILES}/bin/ngrokd -tlsKey=${MY_FILES}/privkey.pem -tlsCrt=${MY_FILES}/fullchain.pem -domain="${DOMAIN}" -httpAddr=${HTTP_ADDR} -httpsAddr=${HTTPS_ADDR} -tunnelAddr=${TUNNEL_ADDR}

构建Ngrok镜像

[[email protected]_1_218_centos docker-ngrok]# docker build -t ngrok:1.3 .
[[email protected]_1_218_centos docker-ngrok]# docker images
REPOSITORY           TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ngrok                1.3                 dc70190d6377        13 seconds ago      260MB
frps                 0.26                8a87cb91d4de        2 hours ago         21.1MB
alpine               latest              cdf98d1859c1        12 days ago         5.53MB

然后交叉编译生成Linux/Mac/Windows平台的客户端

$ rm -rf assets/client/tls/ngrokroot.crt
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/chain.pem assets/client/tls/ngrokroot.crt
$ rm -rf assets/server/tls/snakeoil.crt
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/cert.pem assets/server/tls/snakeoil.crt
$ rm -rf assets/server/tls/snakeoil.key
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem assets/server/tls/snakeoil.key
$ GOOS=linux GOARCH=amd64 make release-client
$ GOOS=windows GOARCH=amd64 make release-client
$ GOOS=darwin GOARCH=amd64 make release-client

在服务器上运行Ngrok服务,将8090端口请求转发给容器的80端口,并且映射容器的4443端口到服务器的7000端口,以便客户端连接

[[email protected]_1_218_centos docker-ngrok]# docker run --name ngrok -e DOMAIN='example.com' -p 8090:80 -p 8091:443 -p 7000:4443 -v /root/docker-ngrok/myfiles:/myfiles ngrok:1.3 /bin/sh /server.sh
[09:18:21 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Info:83) [registry] [tun] No affinity cache specified
[09:18:21 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.Info:112) Listening for public http connections on [::]:80
[09:18:21 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.Info:112) Listening for public https connections on [::]:443
[09:18:21 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.Info:112) Listening for control and proxy connections on [::]:4443
[09:18:21 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Info:83) [metrics] Reporting every 30 seconds
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Info:83) [tun:18e8cd42] New connection from 123.*.*.*:50529
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [tun:18e8cd42] Waiting to read message
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [tun:18e8cd42] Reading message with length: 125
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [tun:18e8cd42] Read message {"Type":"Auth","Payload":{"Version":"2","MmVersion":"1.7","User":"","Password":"","OS":"linux","Arch":"amd64","ClientId":""}}
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Info:83) [ctl:18e8cd42] Renamed connection tun:18e8cd42
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Info:83) [registry] [ctl] Registered control with id 1957f20b9b3ce3b76c7d8fc8b16276ed
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [ctl:18e8cd42] [1957f20b9b3ce3b76c7d8fc8b16276ed] Writing message: {"Type":"AuthResp","Payload":{"Version":"2","MmVersion":"1.7","ClientId":"1957f20b9b3ce3b76c7d8fc8b16276ed","Error":""}}
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [ctl:18e8cd42] [1957f20b9b3ce3b76c7d8fc8b16276ed] Writing message: {"Type":"ReqProxy","Payload":{}}
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [ctl:18e8cd42] [1957f20b9b3ce3b76c7d8fc8b16276ed] Waiting to read message

将刚才编译的客户端下载下来,创建grok.cfg,连接服务器的7000端口

server_addr: "example.com:7000"
trust_host_root_certs: false

指定要监听的域名,及本地web端口

./ngrok -config=ngrok.cfg -subdomain=dev 9010

ngrok                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (Ctrl+C to quit)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
Tunnel Status                 online                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
Version                       1.7/1.7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Forwarding                    http://dev.flexkit.cn -> 127.0.0.1:9010                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Forwarding                    https://dev.flexkit.cn -> 127.0.0.1:9010                                                                                                                                                                                                        
Web Interface                 127.0.0.1:4040                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
# Conn                        2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Avg Conn Time                 46.84ms                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              


HTTP Requests                                                         
-------------                                                         
                                                                      
GET /teams                    200 OK                   

请求dev.example.com即可以访问到本机9010端口的web服务。
附:ZeroTier是一个软件定义网络(SDN)软件,可以免费组建私有网络,当然也可以用来转发服务器请求至本地。

参考链接::
CentOS7搭建ngrok服务器
inconshreveable/ngrok
hteen/ngrok
搭建自己的 Ngrok 服务器, 并与 Nginx 并存
使用Docker部署Ngrok实现内网穿透
Laravel DDNS package,可代替花生壳之类的软件
通过DNSPod API实现动态域名解析
借助dnspod-api定时更新域名解析获取树莓派公网ip
使用Let’s Encrypt生成通配符SSL证书
Letsencrypt使用DNSPOD验证自动更新证书
在 OpenWrt 环境下使用 DnsPod 来实现动态域名解析
利用ssh反向代理以及autossh实现从外网连接内网服务器
How To Configure Nginx with SSL as a Reverse Proxy for Jenkins

在Raspberry Pi上面运行Docker

公司有个项目是运行在Raspberry Pi上面,这个项目涉及到Perl,Python,Java Applet,并且未来Pi的数量可能达到上千个。最近碰到了一样的代码遵循一样的部署脚本,在不同的树莓派上运行竟然到不同的结果。于是也想将Docker应用到树莓派上面去,使用docker主要优点:
1 消除环境差异,程序运行所依赖的环境已经一起打包,随身携带了
2 简化配置,只有docker相关配置,不再需要每个语言单独配置
3 重复利用
4 方便升级,之前有差异时,是重写镜像。。
5 方便管理,可以使用docker已有的工具来管理
6 性能接近原生应用

Raspberry Pi在jessie这个版本就已经支持了docker,检查版本:

$ lsb_release -da
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Raspbian
Description:    Raspbian GNU/Linux 8.0 (jessie)
Release:    8.0
Codename:  jessie

如果你的版本已经支持,直接执行以下命令就可以了:

curl -sSL https://get.docker.com | sh

如果你的版本不支持,你需要升级系统或重新刷镜像,可以采用hypriot

#下载
wget https://downloads.hypriot.com/hypriotos-rpi-v1.0.0.img.zip
#解压
unzip hypriotos-rpi-v1.0.0.img.zip
#查找 SD card ID
lsblk
#查找类似/dev/mmcblk0

#弹出SD卡
umount /run/media/mac/8734-1E4C
#将镜像写入 SD card
sudo dd if=hypriotos-rpi-v1.0.0.img of=/dev/mmcblk0 bs=1m

然后启动,默认的用户名/密码是pirate/hypriot。
当然也可以采用Debian或者是Alpine Linux定制(Raspberry Pi仅支持 arm版本的系统,并且只能在arm平台上构建,或者这个)。
运行测试一下:

docker run -d -p 80:80 hypriot/rpi-busybox-httpd

访问以下树莓派的IP,就会看到一个非常神器的网页,而这个容器仅仅几M。在这里可以看到基于hypriot的好几个镜像,也可以搜索其他的raspberry pi镜像。
现在我们使用hypriot/rpi-python来构建一个使用Python Selenium测试带有Java Applet的网页:

docker run -idt -P --name web hypriot/rpi-python
docker attach web

进入到容器里面,执行以下命令:

sudo apt-get update
#安装openjdk
sudo apt-get install openjdk-7-jdk
#安装Firefox
sudo apt-get install iceweasel
#安装Java Applet插件
sudo apt-get install icedtea-7-plugin
#安装虚拟桌面
sudo apt-get install xvfb
#安装Python包管理工具
sudo apt-get install python-pip
#安装selenium
sudo pip install selenium
#安装Python虚拟桌面库
sudo pip install pyvirtualdisplay

创建测试test.py:

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys
import time
from pyvirtualdisplay import Display
from selenium.webdriver.common.desired_capabilities import DesiredCapabilities
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_binary import FirefoxBinary
display = Display(visible=0, size=(800, 600))
display.start()
caps = DesiredCapabilities.FIREFOX
caps["marionette"] = False
#caps["binary"] = "/usr/bin/firefox"
firefox_binary = FirefoxBinary("/usr/bin/firefox")
fp = webdriver.FirefoxProfile()
fp.set_preference("security.enable_java", True )
fp.set_preference("plugin.state.java", 2)
driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_profile=fp,firefox_binary=firefox_binary)
driver.maximize_window()
driver.get("http://businessconnect.telus.com/bandwidth/en_us/index.html?voip=on&voiplines=1&testlength=15&codec=g711&_=1470641590&startTest=on")
time.sleep(120)
mos = driver.find_element_by_class_name("sectiontitle18").find_element_by_tag_name("span").get_attribute("innerHTML")
print mos
driver.close()
display.stop()

运行测试用例:

python test.py

如果仅仅是这样子,是行不通的,Java Applet的安全询问弹窗超出了浏览器范围是点击不到的,需要更为强大的组件来做,比如。
这里采用取巧的方法,首先把pyvirtualdisplay相关代码注释掉,在界面上观察具体的执行效果,并点击安全询问,运行通过。然后取消注释,再次运行,就可以了。最后将运行通过的配置文件/root/.icedtea目录拷贝出来,放到其他的树莓派里面就可以了。
如果碰到报错”selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException: Can’t load the profile”,通常是说Firefox或selenium版本太低,如果检查都不是,需要修改WebDriver的超时时间

nano /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/selenium/webdriver/firefox/webdriver.py

timeout从30秒改为120秒:

class WebDriver(RemoteWebDriver):


    # There is no native event support on Mac
    NATIVE_EVENTS_ALLOWED = sys.platform != "darwin"


    def __init__(self, firefox_profile=None, firefox_binary=None, timeout=120,

修改为容器后,提交变更:

[email protected]:/home/pirate# docker ps -l
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                COMMAND            CREATED            STATUS              PORTS              NAMES
04762770df2d        hypriot/rpi-python  "bash"              2 days ago          Up 2 days                              web
[email protected]:/home/pirate# docker commit 04762770df2d hypriot/rpi-python
[email protected]:/home/pirate# docker rm web

运行新镜像

#docker run -idt -P --name web hypriot/rpi-python
#映射程序目录和配置文件进去
docker run -idt -P --name web -v /home/pi:/home/pi -v /home/pi/.icedtea:/root/.icedtea hypriot/rpi-python

程序正常运行后,可以将这个镜像打包:

docker save -o hypriot.tar hypriot/rpi-python:latest

分发给其他树莓派运行:

docker load --input hypriot.tar
docker images
docker run -idt -P --name web -v /home/pi:/home/pi -v /home/pi/.icedtea:/root/.icedtea hypriot/rpi-python

这样子便可以利用docker工具来管理这个应用程序,比起原本复杂的环境配置要简单很多。

在查找Pi可用镜像的时候,顺便发现了一个IOT(internet of things)管理平台:resin

参考链接:
add support to install Docker on raspbian/jessie
Getting started with Docker on your Raspberry Pi
How to get Docker running on your Raspberry Pi using Linux
Getting selenium python to work on Raspberry Pi Model B

使用Docker Compose管理Docker容器

上一篇创建了一个PHP的运行环境,现在需要一个MySQL服务,直接运行:

[email protected]:~# docker run --name rocket-mysql -v /home/rocketfish/mysql/data:/var/lib/mysql -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=root -d mysql:5.7

就自动下载并得到一个mysql版本为5.7的服务镜像。
这时候,要运行一个Web服务我们需要运行两次的docker run才可以,如果还有更多的Web容器或其他的服务容器呢?
Docker官方提倡一个容器仅提供一个服务,多个服务/容器可以使用docker-compose来管理。
docker-compose本身是一个Python写的工具,可以直接通过pip安装:

[email protected]:~# sudo pip install --upgrade pip

如果你本地并没有Python环境,也可以采用docker-compose的docker镜像来运行:

[email protected]:/home/compose-web# curl -L https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/1.8.0/run.sh > /usr/local/bin/docker-compose
[email protected]:/home/compose-web# docker-compose --version
#开始下载镜像,建议用第一种

查看帮助

[email protected]:~# docker-compose -h
Define and run multi-container applications with Docker.

Usage:
  docker-compose [-f <arg>...] [options] [COMMAND] [ARGS...]
  docker-compose -h|--help

Options:
  -f, --file FILE             Specify an alternate compose file (default: docker-compose.yml)
  -p, --project-name NAME     Specify an alternate project name (default: directory name)
  --verbose                   Show more output
  -v, --version               Print version and exit
  -H, --host HOST             Daemon socket to connect to

  --tls                       Use TLS; implied by --tlsverify
  --tlscacert CA_PATH         Trust certs signed only by this CA
  --tlscert CLIENT_CERT_PATH  Path to TLS certificate file
  --tlskey TLS_KEY_PATH       Path to TLS key file
  --tlsverify                 Use TLS and verify the remote
  --skip-hostname-check       Don't check the daemon's hostname against the name specified
                              in the client certificate (for example if your docker host
                              is an IP address)

Commands:
  build              Build or rebuild services
  bundle             Generate a Docker bundle from the Compose file
  config             Validate and view the compose file
  create             Create services
  down               Stop and remove containers, networks, images, and volumes
  events             Receive real time events from containers
  exec               Execute a command in a running container
  help               Get help on a command
  kill               Kill containers
  logs               View output from containers
  pause              Pause services
  port               Print the public port for a port binding
  ps                 List containers
  pull               Pulls service images
  push               Push service images
  restart            Restart services
  rm                 Remove stopped containers
  run                Run a one-off command
  scale              Set number of containers for a service
  start              Start services
  stop               Stop services
  unpause            Unpause services
  up                 Create and start containers
  version            Show the Docker-Compose version information

这些命令包括了创建/启动/停止/暂停/继续运行容器。
首先要创建docker-compose.yml,这是一个YAML格式的文档

mkdir docker
cd docker
mkdir web
mkdir db
vim docker-compose.yml

内容如下:

version: '2'
services:
  db:
    image: mysql:5.7
    ports:
    - "3306:3306"
    restart: always
    environment:
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: root
      MYSQL_DATABASE: web
      MYSQL_USER: root
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: rootweb
    volumes:
    - ./db/data:/var/lib/mysql
  web:
    depends_on:
      - db
    image: nginx-php-fpm:phalcon
    ports:
    - "80:80"
    restart: always
    environment:
      WEB_DB_HOST: db:3306
      WEB_DB_PASSWORD: root
    volumes:
    - ./web/html:/var/www/html/
    links:
    - db

这里的environment定义了环境变量,比如host的MAC,就可以在docker容器的系统变量里面得到,各个编程语言都有获取系统环境变量的方法。这些变量也可以组织起来放在文件里面加载进去,参考这里
这里的volumes定义了要映射进容器的文件或文件夹或者数据容器,可以参考这里。注意,多个容器共享同一个目录,会出现写冲突,比如MySQL,多个实例,数据目录需要分开。所以设计好你的程序,哪一部分是需要只读的(可以共享),哪一部分是需要写的;写的部分是否可以放到各自临时目录,或者其他公共服务里面。
运行并查看

[email protected]:/home/compose-web# docker-compose up -d
Creating network "composeweb_default" with the default driver
Creating composeweb_db_1
Creating composeweb_web_1
[email protected]:/home/compose-web# docker-compose ps
      Name                   Command             State              Ports            
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
composeweb_db_1    docker-entrypoint.sh mysqld   Up      0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp      
composeweb_web_1   /start.sh                     Up      443/tcp, 0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp 
#也可以使用原来的命令
[email protected]:/home/compose-web# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                   COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                         NAMES
efbdaf257748        nginx-php-fpm:phalcon   "/start.sh"              13 seconds ago      Up 11 seconds       0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp, 443/tcp   composeweb_web_1
a6935d20911e        mysql:5.7               "docker-entrypoint.sh"   14 seconds ago      Up 13 seconds       0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp        composeweb_db_1

docker-compose up -d ,将会在后台启动并运行所有的容器。
docker-compose仅仅提供了对多个docker服务的管理,仍然可以在这些容器上运行原来的docker命令。检查下web容器的IP:

[email protected]:/home/compose-web# docker inspect composeweb_web_1 | grep IPAddress
            "SecondaryIPAddresses": null,
            "IPAddress": "",
                    "IPAddress": "172.18.0.3",

然后访问:http://172.18.0.3/ 就可以看到web页面了。
如果想要停止服务,可以用docker-compose stop:

[email protected]:/home/compose-web# docker-compose stop db
Stopping composeweb_db_1 ... done
[email protected]:/home/compose-web# docker-compose stop web
Stopping composeweb_web_1 ... done

再次启动,得到相同名称的服务:

[email protected]:/home/compose-web# docker-compose up -d
Starting composeweb_db_1
Starting composeweb_web_1

各个容器的名称也可以在配置文件里面通过参数container_name来指定。
docker-compose的配置还有很多其他的参数,可以参考这里。比如刚才我们通过docker inspect来查找容器IP,也可以配置成静态IP:

version: '2'

services:
  app:
    image: nginx-php-fpm:phalcon
    networks:
      app_net:
        ipv4_address: 172.18.0.10
        ipv6_address: 2001:3984:3989::10

networks:
  app_net:
    driver: bridge
    driver_opts:
      com.docker.network.enable_ipv6: "true"
    ipam:
      driver: default
      config:
      - subnet: 172.18.0.0/24
        gateway: 172.18.0.1
      - subnet: 2001:3984:3989::/64
        gateway: 2001:3984:3989::1

也可以自定义网络
刚才我们的配置文件里面直接指定了镜像,也可以指定Dockerfile镜像构建,假如Dockerfile在web目录下面:

build:
  context: ./web

或者直接指明Dockerfile:

build:
  context: .
  dockerfile: Dockerfile-alternate

实际上,docker-compose的配置已经覆盖了Dockerfile的配置项,也可以直接用于构建多个docker服务,比如指定运行的命令

command: [/bin/bash]

这里的入口程序,如果不能持续运行的话,运行完成后,docker就会退出。所以如果你需要可以后台运行的docker容器,那么入口程序,就必须保持一个程序在前台运行,不退出,比如运行crontab的镜像,入口程序可以是:

cron && bash

cron这个程序是在后台运行的,如果不配合前台程序bash,容器执行玩cron就会退出了。其他运行crontab的容器,大都是强制一个程序在前台不退出,比如这个

cron && tail -f /var/log/cron.log

这里需要注意一下,通过docker设置的environment values在容器内的cli下面执行时取不到的,比如printenv,使用cron后台运行时取不到外部设置的变量,但是手动执行时又可以。这些外部环境变量只能在ENTRYPOINT或者CMD所执行的shell里面去设置,比如在CMD执行start.sh:

printenv | grep -E "^HOST" > /root/env.conf && cron && bash

Docker compose还可以跟Docker Swarm结合。

参考链接:
Install Docker Compose
Quickstart: Docker Compose and WordPress
YAML 模板文件
Introduction to Docker Compose Tool for Multi-Container Applications
Dockerfile基本结构
How to Get Environment Variables Passed Through docker-compose to the Containers
Access environment variables from crontab into a docker container
How can I access Docker set Environment Variables From a Cron Job
Dockerfile里指定执行命令用ENTRYPOING和用CMD有何不同?
What is the difference between CMD and ENTRYPOINT in a Dockerfile?
Docker difference between run, cmd, entrypoint commands

基于Docker的Nginx + PHP-FPM + Phalcon镜像

上一篇简单介绍了Docker的安装,运行,这一篇来构建一个基于Nginx和PHP-FPM的Phalcon镜像。在官方找了以下,单独的Nginx和PHP镜像更加流行,混合的反倒不是很受欢迎。其实官方并不提倡在一个容器里面运行多个服务,最好是一个容器只对外提供一个服务:一个容器启动时仅仅运行一个命令(其实里面可以包含多个),也方便部署扩展升级。多个服务之间可以使用Docker Compose来管理。但是Docker并不阻止创建包含多个服务器的镜像,为了方便,所以我们仍然可以自己构建。
构建镜像可以有好几种方式,比如基于Alpine Linuxphusion/baseimage-docker构建,或者基于Ubuntu,CentOS等构建,又或者在PHP,Nginx的基础镜像上构建。注意:如果要采用Ubuntu或者CentOS构建,可能需要一些额外的工作,以便保持镜像轻量稳定运行。
这里采用已有的richarvey/nginx-php-fpm来构建,它是一个基于Nginx官方镜像来构建的。
Github上拉取相关文件从Dockerfile构建:

$ sudo git clone https://github.com/ngineered/nginx-php-fpm
$ sudo docker build -t nginx-php-fpm:latest .

关于Dockerfile的相关解释,可以参考这里。当然也可以直接拉取镜像使用

$ sudo docker pull richarvey/nginx-php-fpm
# 也可以直接运行,会自动拉取
#$ sudo docker run -d richarvey/nginx-php-fpm

查看本地的镜像,连单独的nginx也来了:

[email protected]:~# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
nginx-php-fpm       latest              4fc9ac9f2945        7 hours ago         228.5 MB
nginx               mainline-alpine     00bc1e841a8f        5 days ago          54.21 MB

这里的mainline-alpine是指基于Alpine Linux构建的。Alpine Linux是一个仅有5M大小的linux系统,采用apk add/search来安装/查找相应软件,有许多镜像都是基于它构建的,官方PHP镜像也有基于它构建的Docker镜像。
然后运行nginx-php-fpm:

[email protected]:~# docker run --name web -d richarvey/nginx-php-fpm

docker inspect命令用来查看容器的相关信息,查看下分配的IP:

[email protected]:~# docker inspect web | grep IPAddress
            "SecondaryIPAddresses": null,
            "IPAddress": "172.17.0.2",
                    "IPAddress": "172.17.0.2",

然后在浏览器里面访问:http://172.17.0.2/就可以看到phpinfo的页面。到这里,Nginx + PHP的web容器就已经运行起来了,对应的Nginx和PHP进程可以在宿主机器上直接查看:

[email protected]:~# ps aux | grep nginx
root     18167  0.0  0.0  13696  4300 pts/6    S    01:47   0:00 nginx: master process /usr/sbin/nginx
systemd+ 18168  0.0  0.0  14144  1868 pts/6    S    01:47   0:00 nginx: worker process
systemd+ 18169  0.0  0.0  14144  1868 pts/6    S    01:47   0:00 nginx: worker process
systemd+ 18170  0.0  0.0  14144  1868 pts/6    S    01:47   0:00 nginx: worker process
systemd+ 18171  0.0  0.0  14144  1868 pts/6    S    01:47   0:00 nginx: worker process
systemd+ 18172  0.0  0.0  14144  1868 pts/6    S    01:47   0:00 nginx: worker process
root     18190  0.0  0.0  21292  1012 pts/18   S+   01:47   0:00 grep --color=auto nginx
[email protected]:~# ps aux | grep php-fpm
root     18166  0.0  0.2 167880 23364 pts/6    S    01:47   0:00 php-fpm: master process (/etc/php5/php-fpm.conf)
systemd+ 18173  0.0  0.1 167880  8620 pts/6    S    01:47   0:00 php-fpm: pool www
systemd+ 18174  0.0  0.1 167880  8620 pts/6    S    01:47   0:00 php-fpm: pool www
systemd+ 18175  0.0  0.1 167880  8620 pts/6    S    01:47   0:00 php-fpm: pool www
root     18192  0.0  0.0  21292  1032 pts/18   S+   01:47   0:00 grep --color=auto php-fpm

接下来要为这个容器添加Phalcon扩展。首先要进入容器里面,使用docker attach命令进入:

[email protected]:~# docker attach web



结果在这里等了半天进不去。。。。查看下当前镜像入口程序:

[email protected]:~# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
94176348a939        nginx-php-fpm       "/start.sh"         6 seconds ago       Up 5 seconds        80/tcp, 443/tcp     web

这个容器启动的时候运行的是start.sh这个脚本,这个脚本运行了Supervisor工具。于是重新启动容器,运行/bin/bash

#终止容器运行
[email protected]:~# docker stop web
web
#删除容器
[email protected]:~# docker rm web
web
#重新运行
[email protected]:~# docker run --name web -d -t -i nginx-php-fpm /bin/bash
ea21e10df702644a83ed75930b30c7764a786c4feabdf17cd868f86640137c47
[email protected]:~# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
ea21e10df702        nginx-php-fpm       "/bin/bash"         6 seconds ago       Up 5 seconds        80/tcp, 443/tcp     web
[email protected]:~# docker attach web
#进来了
bash-4.3# ls
bin       etc       lib       media     proc      run       srv       sys       usr
dev       home      linuxrc   mnt       root      sbin      start.sh  tmp       var

就可以进去了。
先安装编译相关工具包:

bash-4.3# apk --no-cache add php5-dev
bash-4.3# apk --no-cache add gcc
bash-4.3# apk --no-cache add make
bash-4.3# apk --no-cache add autoconf
bash-4.3# apk --no-cache add libc-dev
fetch http://dl-cdn.alpinelinux.org/alpine/v3.4/main/x86_64/APKINDEX.tar.gz
fetch http://dl-cdn.alpinelinux.org/alpine/v3.4/community/x86_64/APKINDEX.tar.gz
(1/2) Installing musl-dev (1.1.14-r12)
(2/2) Installing libc-dev (0.7-r0)
OK: 334 MiB in 106 packages

编译安装Phalcon:

bash-4.3# cd /home
bash-4.3# git clone --depth=1 git://github.com/phalcon/cphalcon.git
bash-4.3# cd cphalcon/build
bash-4.3# ./install
bash-4.3# ls -la /usr/lib/php5/modules/ | grep phalcon
-rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root       5045264 Sep 28 17:34 phalcon.so

更改PHP扩展的配置:

bash-4.3# cd /etc/php5/conf.d/
bash-4.3# vi phalcon.ini
#添加以下内容
#extension=phalcon.so

#检查扩展是否加载成功
bash-4.3# php -i | grep phalcon
/etc/php5/conf.d/phalcon.ini,
phalcon
phalcon => enabled
phalcon.db.escape_identifiers => On => On
phalcon.db.force_casting => Off => Off
phalcon.orm.cast_on_hydrate => Off => Off
phalcon.orm.column_renaming => On => On
phalcon.orm.enable_implicit_joins => On => On
phalcon.orm.enable_literals => On => On
phalcon.orm.events => On => On
phalcon.orm.exception_on_failed_save => Off => Off
phalcon.orm.ignore_unknown_columns => Off => Off
phalcon.orm.late_state_binding => Off => Off
phalcon.orm.not_null_validations => On => On
phalcon.orm.virtual_foreign_keys => On => On
OLDPWD => /home/cphalcon/build
_SERVER["OLDPWD"] => /home/cphalcon/build
_ENV["OLDPWD"] => /home/cphalcon/build

加载成功了,需要保持本次镜像变更。首先退出容器:

bash-4.3# cd /home
#删除各种不必要的东西,比如gcc
bash-4.3# rm -rf cphalcon/
bash-4.3# exit
exit

然后查看版本并提交变更:

[email protected]:~# docker ps -l
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS                     PORTS               NAMES
ea21e10df702        nginx-php-fpm       "/bin/bash"         31 minutes ago      Exited (0) 6 seconds ago                       web
[email protected]:~# docker commit ea2 nginx-php-fpm:phalcon
sha256:bb388df328ecc33fac02dba69759d5c992a145f650a0e5b20ca29a4b122fa933

docker commit命令可以用来提交变更,ea2是container id的前三位,也可以写全;然后跟的是要提交的镜像。这里提交到phalcon这个标签下,以便与原来的区分开。查看所有镜像,发现有两个不同的标签:

[email protected]:~# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
nginx-php-fpm       phalcon             bb388df328ec        11 seconds ago      364.4 MB
nginx-php-fpm       latest              4fc9ac9f2945        4 hours ago         228.5 MB

采用新镜像来运行,这里要讲程序运行入口改回/start.sh,以便能正常启动Nginx和PHP-FPM:

[email protected]:~# docker rm web
web
[email protected]:~# docker run --name web -d -t -i nginx-php-fpm:phalcon /start.sh
deecb19467cda2676b24248e3f55970a2481255c6022a80ffbf5087792ccb559
[email protected]:~# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                   COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
deecb19467cd        nginx-php-fpm:phalcon   "/start.sh"         4 seconds ago       Up 3 seconds        80/tcp, 443/tcp     web

入口程序改变了,需要再提交一次变更:

[email protected]:~# docker stop web
web
[email protected]:~# docker ps -l
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                   COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS                       PORTS               NAMES
c7600e62733d        nginx-php-fpm:phalcon   "/start.sh"         34 seconds ago      Exited (137) 8 seconds ago                       web
[email protected]:~# docker commit c76 nginx-php-fpm:phalcon
sha256:1c97ee169a551dd8441f42b40beafd102c71f3e887e2317dc11ce0ef136ceaf0

运行最终的镜像:

[email protected]:~# docker rm web
web
[email protected]:~# docker run --name web -d -t -i nginx-php-fpm:phalcon
cb5b0c9e55913a538539e46c53ac7905b21def84a05eb00ef81c4b500853576c
[email protected]:~# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                   COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
cb5b0c9e5591        nginx-php-fpm:phalcon   "/start.sh"         4 seconds ago       Up 3 seconds        80/tcp, 443/tcp     web

访问http://172.17.0.2/,便可以在页面找到phalcon扩展。
通常我们会将程序和数据分开,挂载外部文件目录到容器里面去:

[email protected]:~# docker stop web
web
[email protected]:~# docker rm web
web
[email protected]:~# docker run --name web -d -t -i -v /home/docker/nginx-php-fpm/src:/var/www/html/ nginx-php-fpm:phalcon
ffd64793fe8e7a2a95b68f514e221b7ec3b6cadfe668c016f55a7bb6d48bc702

-v参数可以用来挂载目录或者文件,可以又多个-v参数。
刚才容器里面做的那些已经添加到Dockerfile里面去,你直接使用它来构建。
至此Nginx + PHP-FPM + Phalcon镜像构建完成,介绍绍了如何进入容器,提交变更,网络访问和文件挂载。

参考链接:
A minimal Ubuntu base image modified for Docker-friendliness
eboraas/phalcon
基于Docker的PHP开发环境
Docker for PHP Developers
Docker在PHP项目开发环境中的应用
使用 Supervisor 来管理进程
PHP C扩展框架Phalcon
Alpine Linux,一个只有5M的Docker镜像