分类目录归档:服务器

短网址生成

有时候我们想把一个URL分享给别人,如果URL参数太多,或者太长了,生成的二维码就不好扫描,不方便分享。于是便有了缩短网址的需求,比如微博的t.cn,微信的url.cn,Twitter的t.co。甚至有Bitly.com这样的第三方短网址服务商,提供url访问统计/营销。
怎么样将一个长URL映射成短的URL?如果只是单纯的字符串压缩,很难达到,没办法预计URL有多长。将URL MD5后看起来可行,但是有点长,我们不需要那么多位。最简单的就是在数据库里面存储,一个ID对应一个URL。事实上世界上的URL仍然没有超过2的64次方,因此我们采用自增数字ID就可以了,比如数据库自增量或分布式ID生成器。使用自增数字ID的好处是它可以作为数据库主键,通过它来查找对应的URL就很快来。但是随着ID的增长,它也会变得很长,我们还可以将它缩短:将一个10进制的数字转换为62进制的字符串,最多只要11个字符就可以了。


如果能预计需要生成的网址数量,还可以再缩短,譬如世界上的网址数量大概50亿,62的7次方远大于这个数,因此7个字符足够了。
当访问短网址时,需要301/302重定向到原本的长网址。如果是301永久重定向,则搜索引擎会直接显示重定向后的地址。
PHP函数base_convert可以在2和36进制之间转换,对于62进制就不行,这里分享一个Base62 的转换类,可以将10进制数字转换位62进制

<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace Dig\Conversion;


class Base
{
    const BASE_MIN = 2;
    const BASE_MAX = 62;

    public function __construct(int $base, string $aplphabet)
    {
        if (($base < self::BASE_MIN) || ($base > self::BASE_MAX)) {
            throw new \Exception('base convert only require '.self::BASE_MIN.' <= base <= '.self::BASE_MAX);
        }
        if (empty($aplphabet)) {
            throw new \Exception('cannot have empty aplphabet');
        }
        if ($base > \strlen($aplphabet)) {
            throw new \Exception('base convert only require base <= aplphabet length ');
        }
        $this->base = $base;
        $this->alphabet = $aplphabet;
    }

    public function encode(int $number): string
    {
        $number = (string) $number;
        $base = (string) $this->base;
        $reminder = \bcmod($number, $base);
        $quotient = \bcdiv($number, $base);
        $result = $this->alphabet[$reminder];

        while ($quotient) {
            $reminder = \bcmod($quotient, $base);
            $quotient = \bcdiv($quotient, $base);
            $result = $this->alphabet[$reminder] . $result;
        }
        return $result;
    }
    public function decode(string $number): int
    {
        $base = (string) $this->base;
        $length = \strlen($number);
        $result = (string) \strpos($this->alphabet, $number[0]);

        for ($i = 1; $i < $length; $i++) {
            $result = \bcadd(\bcmul($base, $result), (string) \strpos($this->alphabet, $number[$i]));
        }
        return (int)$result;
    }
}

class Base62 extends Base
{
    public function __construct()
    {
        parent::__construct(62, '0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ');
    }
}

这里使用a-z表示10-36,A-Z表示37-62。注意这里需要用到BCMath扩展,否则对于超过2的32次方的大数字数不准确。也可以使用GMP扩展的gmp_strval函数直接转换。注意gmp使用A-Z表示10-36,a-z表示37-62。
测试一下:

include __DIR__.'/../vendor/autoload.php';

use Dig\Conversion\Base62;


$base62 = new Base62();
$id = 56800235584;

for ($i = 1; $i < 100; $i++) {
    $encode = $base62->encode($id);
    $decode = $base62->decode($encode);
    echo $id.'->'.$encode.'->'.$decode.PHP_EOL;
    $id += $i;
}

这里的起始ID可以自定义或者在分布式ID生成器里面更改CUSTOM_EPOCH生成合适的值。
由于这个ID本身就是唯一,映射为固定长度的字符,也可以用来做唯一标识,比如匿名用户的ID,Ngrok三级域名等等。
这个类可以扩展成支持任意2-64进制的转换,更改映射的字符串就行了。
注意这里的Base62转换于PHP函数base64_encode/base64_decode没有任何关系,即使在这个类的基础上增加2个字符支持Base64编码也不一样。Base64是使用64个可打印字符对二进制数据的编码解码,它的编码表与这里定义的不一样。

参考链接:
如何设计一个短网址服务(TinyURL)?
converting a number base 10 to base 62 (a-zA-Z0-9)
Generating IDs like Youtube or Bit.ly using PHP
PHP Base-62 encoding
Shortening Strings (URLs) using Base 62 Encoding
Base 2, 8, 16, 62, N Conversion – PHP

基于Swoole和Zookeeper的分布式ID生成器

大部分业务都需要一个唯一标识ID,比如订单ID、消息ID,通常使用的ID就是数据库的自增ID,比如MySQL的AUTO_INCREMENT;有时候这个ID还需要在不同系统里面传递、保存,又要保证唯一性。单机MySQL在高并发请求下面又可能存在锁/性能问题,于是Flicker使用两台MySQL来生成ID,一台从0开始,一台从1开始,步长为2,这样两台生成的ID不会互相重复,这个方案也可以扩展成N台,自增步长为N即可。
作为一个分布式ID应当避免在不同节点同步ID信息,通常都是基于时间戳和机器信息来生成。比如MongoDB的ObjectId是提前生成的为12字节=4字节UNIX时间戳+3字节机器码+2字节进程ID+2字节计数序列。
如果不需要访问数据库即能生成ID,性能可以更高。比如UUID V1,基于时间戳和网卡,采用128位,可以生成范围非常广的ID,但是生成的16进制值的36位字符串不好排序。在MySQL里面可以通过调整机器码(MAC)和时间戳位置顺序,并采用binary来存储以提高性能
Twitter开源的Snowflake则生成64位数字ID,包括41时间戳,10位机器码/节点码,12位计数序列,另外1位保留。采用基于时间戳的数字ID的好处是这个ID可以当作主键,并且已经粗略按时间排好序,可以直接分页读取,省去在时间字段上建立索引。

分布式ID通常需要用到机器信息(节点ID或MAC),一个机器通常只运行一个服务进程,所以通常不采用Nginx/Apache + PHP。参考这里实现一个基于Swoole和Zookpeer的64位ID生成器。基于Swoole可以快速开发一个Web/Socket server,不同于Apache/Nginx,它的PHP进程启动后是常驻运行的,资源初始化后可以重复使用,使用Zookpeer来获取当前进程的节点ID,一旦PHP进程退出后便会销毁对应的节点ID。
首先是生成ID

<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace Dig\Ticket;

use Dig\Ticket\Exception\IllegalTimeException;

class Number
{
    public const TOTAL_BIT = 64;
    public const EPOCH_BIT = 42;
    public const NODE_BIT = 10;
    public const SEQUENCE_BIT = 12;

    public const MAX_NODE_ID = 2 ** self::NODE_BIT - 1;
    public const MAX_SEQUENCE_NUMBER = 2 ** self::SEQUENCE_BIT - 1;
    public const CUSTOM_EPOCH = 1262332800000;

    private $lastTimestamp = 0;
    private $sequence = 0;

    private $nodeId = 0;

    public function __construct(int $nodeId)
    {
        $this->nodeId = $nodeId;
    }

    public function getNodeId(): int
    {
        return $this->nodeId;
    }

    public function getTimestamp(): int
    {
        return (int) (\microtime(true) * 1000) - self::CUSTOM_EPOCH;
    }

    public function generate(): int
    {
        $current = $this->getTimestamp();
        if ($current < $this->lastTimestamp) {
            throw new IllegalTimeException('current timestamp cannot less than before');
        }
        if ($current === $this->lastTimestamp) {
            $this->sequence = ($this->sequence + 1) & self::MAX_SEQUENCE_NUMBER;
            if (0 === $this->sequence) {
                $current = $this->_waitNextTimestamp($current);
            }
        } else {
            $this->sequence = 0;
        }
        $this->lastTimestamp = $current;
        $id = $current << (self::TOTAL_BIT - self::EPOCH_BIT);
        $id = $id | ($this->getNodeId() << (self::TOTAL_BIT - self::EPOCH_BIT - self::NODE_BIT));
        $id = $id | $this->sequence;

        return $id;
    }

    private function _waitNextTimestamp($current)
    {
        while ($current === $this->lastTimestamp) {
            $current = $this->getTimestamp();
        }

        return $current;
    }
}

这里只涉及到ID生成,包括时间戳,序列号获取,而节点ID由其他对象生成并传入。2的42次方减1等于4398046511103,大概就是2109年5月15日,可以使用(2^42-1)/(365*24*60*60*1000)≈139年,距离现在还有90年可以用,仍然是一个非常大的可使用范围。CUSTOM_EPOC是自定义的时间戳偏移量,以便选取合适的ID生成下限和上限。距离现在节点生成的接口定义

<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace Dig\Ticket;

interface NodeInterface
{
    public const MAX_NODE_ID = 2 ** Number::NODE_BIT - 1;

    public function getId(): int;
}

这里定义了最大节点序号不能超过1023,可以依据自己的需求更改范围。节点ID的实现可以是基于网卡/进程ID/文件配置等等实现,但是不同机器或多进程之间需要不一样的ID或者需要锁保证上面的generate函数。

<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace Dig\Zookeeper;

class Client extends \Zookeeper
{
    public function makePath(string $path, string $value = ''): bool
    {
        $arrPath = \explode('/', $path);
        if (!empty($arrPath)) {
            $arrPath = \array_filter($arrPath);
            $subpath = '';
            $flag = true;
            foreach ($arrPath as $p) {
                $subpath .= '/'.$p;
                if (!$this->exists($subpath)) {
                    if (!$this->makeNode($subpath, $value)) {
                        $flag = false;
                        break;
                    }
                }
            }

            return $flag;
        }

        return false;
    }

    public function makeNode(string $path, string $value, array $acls = [], int $flag = 0): bool
    {
        if (empty($acls)) {
            $acls = [
                [
                    'perms' => \Zookeeper::PERM_ALL,
                    'scheme' => 'world',
                    'id' => 'anyone',
                ],
            ];
        }
        if ($this->create($path, $value, $acls, $flag)) {
            return true;
        }

        return false;
    }

    public function deletePath(string $path): bool
    {
        $children = $this->getChildren($path);
        if (!empty($children)) {
            foreach ($children as $child) {
                $subpath = $path.'/'.$child;
                $this->deletePath($subpath);
            }
        }

        return $this->delete($path);
    }
}

这里使用Zookeeper实现

<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace Dig\Ticket\Node;

use Dig\Ticket\Exception\UnavailableNodeIdException;
use Dig\Ticket\NodeInterface;
use Dig\Zookeeper\Client;

class Zookeeper implements NodeInterface
{
    private $zk;
    private $dsn;
    private $pool;
    private $basePath = '/dig/ticket';
    private $acls = [
        [
            'perms' => \Zookeeper::PERM_ALL,
            'scheme' => 'world',
            'id' => 'anyone',
        ],
    ];
    private $id;

    public function __construct(string $dsn, string $path = '/sim/ticket')
    {
        $this->dsn = $dsn;
        $this->pool = new \SplQueue();
        if (!empty($path)) {
            $this->basePath = $path;
        }
    }

    public function getZookeeper(): Client
    {
        if (null === $this->zk) {
            $this->zk = new Client($this->dsn);
        }

        return $this->zk;
    }

    public function getId(): int
    {
        if (null === $this->id) {
            if (!$this->getZookeeper()->exists($this->basePath)) {
                $this->getZookeeper()->makePath($this->basePath);
            }
            $i = 1;
            $length = \mb_strlen((string) self::MAX_NODE_ID);
            $nodeId = \sprintf('%0'.$length.'d', $i);
            $children = $this->getZookeeper()->getChildren($this->basePath);
            $children = empty($children) ? [] : $children;
            for (; $i <= self::MAX_NODE_ID; ++$i) {
                $nodeId = \sprintf('%0'.$length.'d', $i);
                if (!\in_array($nodeId, $children)) {
                    $path = $this->basePath.'/'.$nodeId;
                    if ($this->getZookeeper()->exists($path)) {
                        //throw new UnavailableNodeIdException('node already exist: '.$path);
                        continue;
                    }
                    try {
                        $this->getZookeeper()->makeNode($path, $nodeId, $this->acls, \Zookeeper::EPHEMERAL);
                        break;
                    } catch (\ZookeeperException $e) {
                        //throw new UnavailableNodeIdException('cannot create node in zookeeper: '.$e->getMessage());
                        continue;
                    }
                }
            }
            if (self::MAX_NODE_ID === $i) {
                throw new UnavailableNodeIdException('cannot create node in zookeeper: reach max node limit '.self::MAX_NODE_ID);
            }
            $this->id = $i;
        }

        return $this->id;
    }
}

这里遍历查询1-1023之间的节点是否都已在Zookeeper上注册,如果没有则注册,Zookeeper会保证只有一个客户端注册成功。注册的节点类型位Zookeeper::EPHEMERAL,在客户端退出时,该节点会被自动删除,方便其他机器/进程申请。在这篇文章里面我们也使用Zookeeper::EPHEMERAL配合Zookeeper::EPHEMERAL,生成序列号,用来确定进程的master/slave。
初始化并运行Swoole Web server,需要传入Zookeeper的连接字符串,可以使用docker快速部署

<?php
include __DIR__.'/../vendor/autoload.php';
use Dig\Ticket\Number;
use Dig\Ticket\Node\Zookeeper as ZookeeperNode;


/** 
 * swoole - zookeeper tick dispatch issue: https://github.com/php-zookeeper/php-zookeeper
*/
$host = getenv("ZOOKEEPER_CONNECTION");
$host = empty($host) ? "192.168.33.1:2181" : $host;
$node = new ZookeeperNode($host);

$http = new \Swoole\Http\Server("0.0.0.0", 9501);

$http->on("start", function ($server) {
    echo "Swoole http server is started at http://0.0.0.0:9501\n";
});

$http->on("WorkerStart", function ($server, $workerId) use($node) {
    // https://wiki.swoole.com/wiki/page/325.html
    // https://wiki.swoole.com/wiki/page/852.html
    // https://wiki.swoole.com/wiki/page/865.html
    // use lazy initial zk here, so that each worker can hold its own zk resource
    // if we only run swoole http server in 1 worker process (1 CPU), then no need to consider this
    $id = $node->getId();
    $server->nodeId = $id;
    $server->number = new Number($server->nodeId);
});

$http->on("request", function ($request, $response) use ($http) {
    $data = $http->number->generate();
    $response->end($data);
});

$http->start();

访问本机的9501端口即可以得到ID了,完整代码在这里。Swoole默认运行与CPU核数量相同的worker进程数,注意这里需要WorkerStart里初始化获取Node节点ID,如果只是运行一个Swoole worker进程,也可以在外面获取节点ID。可以将Swool\Htpp\Server替换成React\Http\Server或者Amp\Http\Server,它们在单个进程里面loop,每个进程分别持有自己的节点序号,可以保证生成的ID不冲突,性能方面Swoole > Amp > ReactPHP。
可以采用Swoole\Server + thrift/gRPC改造这些代码,提供RPC服务。
注意ID的生成是随时间递增的,依赖于时间戳,如果出现了时间回拨,将会抛出异常。一般解决方案包括:

  • 等待重试
  • 使用Int64原子自增量代替时间戳,跳过时间戳判断
  • 使用预留的节点ID
  • 关闭时钟同步
  • 使用备选自增量方案

生成的ID并不是严格递增的,只是千分一秒递增,对于微博、Twiter的Timeline够用;但也有好处,比如别人不能通过ID相减了解美团的订单量。

参考链接:
如何设计一个分布式ID生成器(Distributed ID Generator),并保证ID按时间粗略有序?
生成全局唯一ID的3个思路,来自一个资深架构师的总结
Distributed unique id generation
Unique ID generation in distributed systems
Optimised UUIDs in mysql
Storing UUID Values in MySQL Tables
Mysql 8.0: UUID support
How to store a 128 bit number in a single column in MySQL?
Generating unique IDs in a distributed environment at high scale
Leaf——美团点评分布式ID生成系统
分布式ID增强篇–优化时钟回拨问题
Ticket Servers: Distributed Unique Primary Keys on the Cheap
Sharding & IDs at Instagram

Nginx + Frp/Ngrok反向代理Webhook至本地

跟第三方平台打交道,经常需要设置一个接受通知的Webhook,比如微信/Skype的回调。它们要求有一个可以在互联网上访问得了的入口,比如某个域名,如果是在本地开发的话,不好调试。通常使用花生壳来代理本地服务,但是花生壳有一些限制,比如端口。有些域名服务商,比如DNSPOD,Linode,提供相应的API,也可以自己搭建DDNS服务,但是也可能有端口访问限制。Frp/Ngrok都是Go语言开发的内网穿透工具,可以自己部署搭建。Frp是国人开发的一款反向代理软件,可以转发请求给位于NAT后面的机器,支持TCP,UDP,HTTP/HTTPS。Ngrok则是国外的一款内网穿透软件,也支持HTTP/HTTPS转发。这里使用Nginx作为反向代理服务器,接收互联网回调并转发给本地的Frp/Ngrok服务,由它们接收webhook请求并转发至本地开发环境。
前面使用OpenVpn搭建了私有网络,可以在Nginx里面配置转发给目标机器就可以了

vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/100-dev.example.conf

内容如下

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name dev.example.com;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}

server {

    listen 443;
    server_name dev.example.com;

    ssl_certificate           /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/cert.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key       /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;

    ssl on;
    ssl_session_cache  builtin:1000  shared:SSL:10m;
    ssl_protocols  TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
    ssl_ciphers HIGH:!aNULL:!eNULL:!EXPORT:!CAMELLIA:!DES:!MD5:!PSK:!RC4;
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

    location / {
      proxy_set_header        Host $host;
      proxy_set_header        X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;

      proxy_pass          http://10.9.0.2/;
      proxy_redirect off;

    }
}

这里使用了let’s encryt的泛域名证书,官方并没有对应的插件,但是DNSPOD有提供相应的API,第三方开发了一个插件自certbot-dns-dnspod,安装这个插件并且配置Dnspod的API Token:

$ yum install certbot python2-certbot-nginx
$ certbot --nginx
$ curl https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py -o get-pip.py
$ pip install certbot-dns-dnspod
$ vim /etc/letsencrypt/dnspod.conf
certbot_dns_dnspod:dns_dnspod_email = "123@163.com"
certbot_dns_dnspod:dns_dnspod_api_token = "123,ca440********"

$ chmod 600 /etc/letsencrypt/dnspod.conf

手动请求证书

$ certbot certonly -a certbot-dns-dnspod:dns-dnspod --certbot-dns-dnspod:dns-dnspod-credentials /etc/letsencrypt/dnspod.conf --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory -d example.com -d "*.example.com"
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Plugins selected: Authenticator certbot-dns-dnspod:dns-dnspod, Installer None
Starting new HTTPS connection (1): acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
dns-01 challenge for example.com
dns-01 challenge for example.com
Starting new HTTPS connection (1): dnsapi.cn
Waiting 10 seconds for DNS changes to propagate
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges
Resetting dropped connection: acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem
   Your key file has been saved at:
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem
   Your cert will expire on 2019-08-04. To obtain a new or tweaked
   version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot
   again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "certbot renew"
*/1 * * * * /usr/local/qcloud/stargate/admin/start.sh > /dev/null 2>&1 &
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le


$ ls -la /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 May  6 12:06 .
drwx------ 3 root root 4096 May  6 12:06 ..
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root   34 May  6 12:06 cert.pem -> ../../archive/example.com/cert1.pem
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root   35 May  6 12:06 chain.pem -> ../../archive/example.com/chain1.pem
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root   39 May  6 12:06 fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/example.com/fullchain1.pem
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root   37 May  6 12:06 privkey.pem -> ../../archive/example.com/privkey1.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  692 May  6 12:06 README

配置证书自动更新

0 0,12 * * * python -c 'import random; import time; time.sleep(random.random() * 3600)' && certbot renew

Frp的开发者已经提供了编译好的frp服务端和客户端,下载即可使用。这里使用docker来运行Frp服务,使用这个Dockerfile,更改版本号为0.26.0,并编译

$ docker build . -t frps:0.26
$ docker images
REPOSITORY           TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
frps                 0.26                8a87cb91d4de        2 hours ago         21.1MB

测试一下SSH代理服务,创建服务端配置文件

mkdir -p frp/conf
vim frp/conf/frps.ini

frps.ini内容

[common]
bind_port = 7000

运行一下frp服务端

#清除先前运行的容器
$ docker rm frp-server
$ docker run --name frp-server -v /root/frp/conf:/conf -p 7000:7000 -p 6000:6000 frps:0.26
2019/04/22 06:41:17 [I] [service.go:136] frps tcp listen on 0.0.0.0:7000
2019/04/22 06:41:17 [I] [root.go:204] Start frps success
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [service.go:337] client login info: ip [110.87.98.82:61894] version [0.26.0] hostname [] os [linux] arch [386]
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [tcp.go:66] [e8783ecea2085e15] [ssh] tcp proxy listen port [6000]
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [control.go:398] [e8783ecea2085e15] new proxy [ssh] success
2019/04/22 06:41:41 [I] [proxy.go:82] [e8783ecea2085e15] [ssh] get a new work connection: [110.*.*.*:61894]

这里映射了2个端口,端口7000是frp服务端监听的端口,以便客户端能够连接上;端口6000是需要服务端监听这个端口,以便提供反向代理服务,比如SSH。如果使用的是腾讯云,相应的端口需要在安全组放行。
客户端直接下对应的包,里面有配置试例。创建本地配置文件frpc.ini如下

[common]
server_addr = 123.*.*.*
server_port = 7000

[ssh]
type = tcp
local_ip = 127.0.0.1
local_port = 22
remote_port = 6000

这个配置即告诉服务端,将服务端的6000端口转发到本地的22端口。本地运行

$ ./frpc -c ./frpc.ini.ssh 
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [service.go:221] login to server success, get run id [e8783ecea2085e15], server udp port [0]
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [proxy_manager.go:137] [e8783ecea2085e15] proxy added: [ssh]
2019/04/22 06:41:27 [I] [control.go:144] [ssh] start proxy success

然后在服务端连接客户端。这里连接的是服务端的6000端口,会被转发给远程(局域网内)主机

[rth@centos72]$ ssh -oPort=6000 vagrant@123.*.*.*
The authenticity of host '[123.*.*.*]:6000 ([123.*.*.*]:6000)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is SHA256:NhBO/PDL***********************.
RSA key fingerprint is MD5:20:70:e2:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*:*.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '[123.*.*.*]:6000' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
vagrant@123.*.*.*'s password:
Last login: Mon Apr 22 06:39:07 2019 from 10.0.2.2
[vagrant@centos64 ~]$ exit
logout
Connection to 123.*.*.* closed.

Frp转发http服务很简单。在conf目录下创建配置frps.ini监听本机来自8080端口的HTTP请求

[common]
bind_port = 7000
vhost_http_port = 8080

[root@VM_1_218_centos frp]# docker run --name frp-server -v /root/frp/conf:/conf -p 7000:7000 -p 8080:8080 frps:0.26
2019/05/06 07:26:28 [I] [service.go:136] frps tcp listen on 0.0.0.0:7000
2019/05/06 07:26:28 [I] [service.go:178] http service listen on 0.0.0.0:8080
2019/05/06 07:26:28 [I] [root.go:204] Start frps success
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [service.go:337] client login info: ip [123.*.*.*:56758] version [0.26.0] hostname [] os [linux] arch [386]
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [http.go:72] [19f60a30aa924343] [web] http proxy listen for host [test.example.com] location []
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [control.go:398] [19f60a30aa924343] new proxy [web] success
2019/05/06 07:27:05 [I] [proxy.go:82] [19f60a30aa924343] [web] get a new work connection: [123.*.*.*:56758]
2019/05/06 07:27:05 [I] [proxy.go:82] [19f60a30aa924343] [web] get a new work connection: [123.*.*.*:56758]
2019/05/06 07:27:06 [I] [proxy.go:82] [19f60a30aa924343] [web] get a new work connection: [123.*.*.*:56758]

然后配置Nginx转发请求

$ vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/100-dev.example.conf

    location / {
      proxy_set_header        Host $host;
      proxy_set_header        X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
      proxy_set_header        X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;

      proxy_pass          http://127.0.0.1:8080/;
      proxy_redirect off;

    }

创建本地web传教客户端配置frpc.ini,将来自服务器dev.example.com:8080端口的HTTP请求转发至本地80端口

[common]
server_addr = 123.*.*.*
server_port = 7000

[web]
type = http
local_port = 80
custom_domains = dev.example.com

运行本地客户端

[root@vagrant-centos64 frp]# ./frpc -c ./frpc.ini
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [service.go:221] login to server success, get run id [19f60a30aa924343], server udp port [0]
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [proxy_manager.go:137] [19f60a30aa924343] proxy added: [web]
2019/05/06 07:26:51 [I] [control.go:144] [web] start proxy success
2019/05/06 07:27:37 [E] [control.go:127] work connection closed, EOF
2019/05/06 07:27:37 [I] [control.go:228] control writer is closing
2019/05/06 07:27:37 [I] [service.go:127] try to reconnect to server...

访问dev.example.com既可以看到本地web服务器页面。Frp还可以代理其他请求,也有在它基础上二次加工提供基于token认证的转发服务。
Ngrok 2.0以后不再开源,只能使用1.3版本的搭建。这里使用docker-ngrok来构建。Ngrok构建需要SSL证书,复制刚才生成的letsencypt证书并更改server.sh

$ git clone https://github.com/hteen/docker-ngrok
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem myfiles/base.pem
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem myfiles/fullchain.pem
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem myfiles/privkey.pem

$ vim server.sh
#!/bin/sh
set -e

if [ "${DOMAIN}" == "**None**" ]; then
    echo "Please set DOMAIN"
    exit 1
fi

if [ ! -f "${MY_FILES}/bin/ngrokd" ]; then
    echo "ngrokd is not build,will be build it now..."
    /bin/sh /build.sh
fi


${MY_FILES}/bin/ngrokd -tlsKey=${MY_FILES}/privkey.pem -tlsCrt=${MY_FILES}/fullchain.pem -domain="${DOMAIN}" -httpAddr=${HTTP_ADDR} -httpsAddr=${HTTPS_ADDR} -tunnelAddr=${TUNNEL_ADDR}

构建Ngrok镜像

[root@VM_1_218_centos docker-ngrok]# docker build -t ngrok:1.3 .
[root@VM_1_218_centos docker-ngrok]# docker images
REPOSITORY           TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ngrok                1.3                 dc70190d6377        13 seconds ago      260MB
frps                 0.26                8a87cb91d4de        2 hours ago         21.1MB
alpine               latest              cdf98d1859c1        12 days ago         5.53MB

然后交叉编译生成Linux/Mac/Windows平台的客户端

$ rm -rf assets/client/tls/ngrokroot.crt
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/chain.pem assets/client/tls/ngrokroot.crt
$ rm -rf assets/server/tls/snakeoil.crt
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/cert.pem assets/server/tls/snakeoil.crt
$ rm -rf assets/server/tls/snakeoil.key
$ cp /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem assets/server/tls/snakeoil.key
$ GOOS=linux GOARCH=amd64 make release-client
$ GOOS=windows GOARCH=amd64 make release-client
$ GOOS=darwin GOARCH=amd64 make release-client

在服务器上运行Ngrok服务,将8090端口请求转发给容器的80端口,并且映射容器的4443端口到服务器的7000端口,以便客户端连接

[root@VM_1_218_centos docker-ngrok]# docker run --name ngrok -e DOMAIN='example.com' -p 8090:80 -p 8091:443 -p 7000:4443 -v /root/docker-ngrok/myfiles:/myfiles ngrok:1.3 /bin/sh /server.sh
[09:18:21 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Info:83) [registry] [tun] No affinity cache specified
[09:18:21 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.Info:112) Listening for public http connections on [::]:80
[09:18:21 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.Info:112) Listening for public https connections on [::]:443
[09:18:21 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.Info:112) Listening for control and proxy connections on [::]:4443
[09:18:21 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Info:83) [metrics] Reporting every 30 seconds
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Info:83) [tun:18e8cd42] New connection from 123.*.*.*:50529
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [tun:18e8cd42] Waiting to read message
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [tun:18e8cd42] Reading message with length: 125
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [tun:18e8cd42] Read message {"Type":"Auth","Payload":{"Version":"2","MmVersion":"1.7","User":"","Password":"","OS":"linux","Arch":"amd64","ClientId":""}}
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Info:83) [ctl:18e8cd42] Renamed connection tun:18e8cd42
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [INFO] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Info:83) [registry] [ctl] Registered control with id 1957f20b9b3ce3b76c7d8fc8b16276ed
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [ctl:18e8cd42] [1957f20b9b3ce3b76c7d8fc8b16276ed] Writing message: {"Type":"AuthResp","Payload":{"Version":"2","MmVersion":"1.7","ClientId":"1957f20b9b3ce3b76c7d8fc8b16276ed","Error":""}}
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [ctl:18e8cd42] [1957f20b9b3ce3b76c7d8fc8b16276ed] Writing message: {"Type":"ReqProxy","Payload":{}}
[09:18:27 UTC 2019/05/07] [DEBG] (ngrok/log.(*PrefixLogger).Debug:79) [ctl:18e8cd42] [1957f20b9b3ce3b76c7d8fc8b16276ed] Waiting to read message

将刚才编译的客户端下载下来,创建grok.cfg,连接服务器的7000端口

server_addr: "example.com:7000"
trust_host_root_certs: false

指定要监听的域名,及本地web端口

./ngrok -config=ngrok.cfg -subdomain=dev 9010

ngrok                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (Ctrl+C to quit)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
Tunnel Status                 online                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
Version                       1.7/1.7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Forwarding                    http://dev.flexkit.cn -> 127.0.0.1:9010                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Forwarding                    https://dev.flexkit.cn -> 127.0.0.1:9010                                                                                                                                                                                                        
Web Interface                 127.0.0.1:4040                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
# Conn                        2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Avg Conn Time                 46.84ms                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              


HTTP Requests                                                         
-------------                                                         
                                                                      
GET /teams                    200 OK                   

请求dev.example.com即可以访问到本机9010端口的web服务。
附:ZeroTier是一个软件定义网络(SDN)软件,可以免费组建私有网络,当然也可以用来转发服务器请求至本地。

参考链接::
CentOS7搭建ngrok服务器
inconshreveable/ngrok
hteen/ngrok
搭建自己的 Ngrok 服务器, 并与 Nginx 并存
使用Docker部署Ngrok实现内网穿透
Laravel DDNS package,可代替花生壳之类的软件
通过DNSPod API实现动态域名解析
借助dnspod-api定时更新域名解析获取树莓派公网ip
使用Let’s Encrypt生成通配符SSL证书
Letsencrypt使用DNSPOD验证自动更新证书
在 OpenWrt 环境下使用 DnsPod 来实现动态域名解析
利用ssh反向代理以及autossh实现从外网连接内网服务器
How To Configure Nginx with SSL as a Reverse Proxy for Jenkins

CentOS 7上安装OpenVPN

之前做的一些树莓派机器因为分布分散,不好远程调试,最近看了CentOS 7.0 Set Up OpenVPN Server In 5 Minutes,决定备份一下。
首先需要有一台公网服务器,比如阿里云、腾讯云服务器,以便这些设备能连接上。阿里云、腾讯云的服务器外部IP并不是直接绑定在你的服务器上的,而是NAT转发到服务器上的,这与Linode不一样,虽然可以方便换IP。查看服务器公网IP,也可以在云管理后台查看

ip a show eth0
dig +short myip.opendns.com @resolver1.opendns.com
dig TXT +short o-o.myaddr.l.google.com @ns1.google.com | awk -F'"' '{ print $2}'

然后是一键安装脚步

yum update
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Angristan/openvpn-install/master/openvpn-install.sh -O centos7-vpn.sh
chmod +x centos7-vpn.sh
./centos7-vpn.sh

Welcome to the OpenVPN installer!
The git repository is available at: https://github.com/angristan/openvpn-install

I need to ask you a few questions before starting the setup.
You can leave the default options and just press enter if you are ok with them.

I need to know the IPv4 address of the network interface you want OpenVPN listening to.
Unless your server is behind NAT, it should be your public IPv4 address.
IP address: 10.0.2.15

It seems this server is behind NAT. What is its public IPv4 address or hostname?
We need it for the clients to connect to the server.
Public IPv4 address or hostname: 110.*.*.*

Checking for IPv6 connectivity...

Your host does not appear to have IPv6 connectivity.

Do you want to enable IPv6 support (NAT)? [y/n]: n

What port do you want OpenVPN to listen to?
   1) Default: 1194
   2) Custom
   3) Random [49152-65535]
Port choice [1-3]: 1

What protocol do you want OpenVPN to use?
UDP is faster. Unless it is not available, you shouldn't use TCP.
   1) UDP
   2) TCP
Protocol [1-2]: 1

What DNS resolvers do you want to use with the VPN?
   1) Current system resolvers (from /etc/resolv.conf)
   2) Self-hosted DNS Resolver (Unbound)
   3) Cloudflare (Anycast: worldwide)
   4) Quad9 (Anycast: worldwide)
   5) Quad9 uncensored (Anycast: worldwide)
   6) FDN (France)
   7) DNS.WATCH (Germany)
   8) OpenDNS (Anycast: worldwide)
   9) Google (Anycast: worldwide)
   10) Yandex Basic (Russia)
   11) AdGuard DNS (Russia)
DNS [1-10]: 3

Do you want to use compression? It is not recommended since the VORACLE attack make use of it.
Enable compression? [y/n]: n

Do you want to customize encryption settings?
Unless you know what you're doing, you should stick with the default parameters provided by the script.
Note that whatever you choose, all the choices presented in the script are safe. (Unlike OpenVPN's defaults)
See https://github.com/angristan/openvpn-install#security-and-encryption to learn more.

Customize encryption settings? [y/n]: n

Okay, that was all I needed. We are ready to setup your OpenVPN server now.
You will be able to generate a client at the end of the installation.
Press any key to continue...

这个脚本省掉了许许多多配置,基本上按照默认一路enter就可以了,唯一需要输入的就是你的公网IP和生成的OpenVPN客户端连接文件名字,比如client.ovpn
然后启动服务

systemctl stop openvpn@server
systemctl enable openvpn@server
systemctl restart openvpn@server
systemctl status openvpn@server

查看生成的服务器配置

[root@li846-239 ~]# cat /etc/openvpn/server.conf
port 1194
proto udp6
dev tun
user nobody
group nobody
persist-key
persist-tun
keepalive 10 120
topology subnet
server 10.8.0.0 255.255.255.0
ifconfig-pool-persist ipp.txt
#client-to-client
#push "dhcp-option DNS 1.0.0.1"
#push "dhcp-option DNS 1.1.1.1"
#push "redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp"
#server-ipv6 fd42:42:42:42::/112
#tun-ipv6
#push tun-ipv6
#push "route-ipv6 2000::/3"
#push "redirect-gateway ipv6"
dh none
ecdh-curve prime256v1
tls-crypt tls-crypt.key 0
crl-verify crl.pem
ca ca.crt
cert server_Yfej6xnJrDu3vs6K.crt
key server_Yfej6xnJrDu3vs6K.key
auth SHA256
cipher AES-128-GCM
ncp-ciphers AES-128-GCM
tls-server
tls-version-min 1.2
tls-cipher TLS-ECDHE-ECDSA-WITH-AES-128-GCM-SHA256
status /var/log/openvpn/status.log
verb 3

10.8.0.0是默认的组网网段,可以改成别的。腾讯云并不支持IPV6,注释掉。push “dhcp-option DNS 1.0.0.1″是推送DNS服务器给客户端。push “redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp”是重定向客户端所有流量到服务器,建议按需添加需要互访的子网段(默认只有10.8.0.0可以互相访问),否则所有流量重定向,可能会引起连接问题,比如ssh腾讯云服务器公网22端口进不去。Push和Route还有高级应用,建议参考OpenVPN: 2x HOW TO
查看连接状况。

journalctl --identifier openvpn -f

配置腾讯云服务器安全组,开放1194端口


将刚才生成的client.ovpn下载下来,mac上双击,使用Tunnelblick打开导入即可。但是使用最新的OpenVPN 2.6提示连不上, 报错:tls-crypt unwrap error: packet too short。
在Linux上安装OpenVPN,启动连接

yum install openvpn
cp client.ovpn /etc/openvpn/client.conf #一定要复制到这里
openvpn --client --config /etc/openvpn/client.conf #测试一下
systemctl start openvpn@client
systemctl enable openvpn@client

测试一下

ping 10.8.0.1
ip route

如果有问题的话,可以查看iptable配置、网络及进程

cat /etc/iptables/add-openvpn-rules.sh
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 10.8.0.0/24 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
iptables -A INPUT -i tun0 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o tun0 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -i tun0 -o eth0 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p udp --dport 1194 -j ACCEPT

iptables -t nat -L -n -v 
net.ipv4.ip_forward
netstat -tulpn | grep :1194
ps aux | grep openvpn

当再一次运行脚本的时候,会提示是否创建新用户配置,注意不同用户不能共享同一个配置。这里创建的用户可以是支持用户名密码也可以是无账号密码的。

[root@tc ~]# ./centos7-vpn.sh
Welcome to OpenVPN-install!
The git repository is available at: https://github.com/angristan/openvpn-install

It looks like OpenVPN is already installed.

What do you want to do?
   1) Add a new user
   2) Revoke existing user
   3) Remove OpenVPN
   4) Exit
Select an option [1-4]:

连上OpenVPN服务器都处于同一个网络了,可以使用内部IP访问。现在使用docker来部署OpenVPN服务也很方便,比如rancher-openvpn,支持LDAP验证。
如果是两个及以上的局域网互通,可以使用Openswan建立虚拟网络连接。
更新:发现resin更新成了balena,免费支持10台设备,并且开放了IOT相关的系统、软件
发现一个新的组网服务zerotier,可以快速的创建属于自己的私有网络。

参考链接:
How To Set Up and Configure an OpenVPN Server on CentOS 7
Tunnel Your Internet Traffic Through an OpenVPN Server
OpenVPN configuration examples
云服务器 ECS Linux CentOS OpenVPN 配置概述
使用OpenVPN搞定远程办公
使用openvpn打通两个异地网络
How To Install Openswan And Create Site-to-Site VPN On CentOS 7
Setting up an IPSEC VPN using OpenSwan in cloud environments
Openswan L2TP/IPsec VPN client setup
在Raspberry Pi上面运行Docker
使用 Zerotier 组建虚拟局域网实现内网穿透
trying to route between two openvpn clients
Site-to-site VPN routing explained in detail

Let’s encrypt

最近域名主机双双到期了,原来的服务商建议域名迁出,于是转移到了Godaddy,过程很顺利。主机迁到了linode,一个是因为它便宜,另一个是因为想给自己的网站加个SSL证书。
首先是服务器环境Apache, PHP, MaraiDB(MySQL)的配置。 linode 创建主机很简单,点点就好了,然后可以去启动机器,设置SSH访问。

yum update
yum install httpd php php-cli php-mbstring php-pdo php-mysql php-gd php-tidy

启动Apache

systemctl start httpd.service
systemctl enable httpd.service

然后直接访问你的服务器ip,可以看到默认的欢迎界面

ip addr show eth0 | grep inet | awk '{ print $2; }' | sed 's/\/.*$//'
curl 1.139.x.x

CentOS 7目前默认不提供Mysql Server,而是Mariadb。MySQL的命令行仍然可以使用并兼容, PHP仍然可以使用PDO及MySQL扩展访问它。

yum install mariadb-server mariadb
systemctl start mariadb

然后设置管理员密码及安全设置

mysql_secure_installation

开机启动Mariadb服务

systemctl enable mariadb.service

可以在/var/www/html目录下创建一个测试脚本来验证安装情况

<?php
phpinfo();

WordPress则是从原本的数据库全部导出,文件全部打包回来。
在Linode上创建对应的数据库,用户及导入脚本

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE database courages_wordpress;

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE USER courages_wp IDENTIFIED BY '*************';

MariaDB [(none)]> grant all privileges on courages_wordpress.* to courages_wp@localhost identified by '*************';

导入数据库

mysql -uroot -p courages_wordpress < /tmp/wordpress.sql

将文件解压并复制到/var/www/html目录

tar -xzvf backup.tar.gz
cp -R backup/public_html/* /var/www/html/*
chown -R apache:apache /var/www/html

更改Apache设置AllowOverride 为all,以便支持WordPress的链接重定向。

vim /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

<Directory "/var/www/html">
    #
    # Possible values for the Options directive are "None", "All",
    # or any combination of:
    #   Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks SymLinksifOwnerMatch ExecCGI MultiViews
    #
    # Note that "MultiViews" must be named *explicitly* --- "Options All"
    # doesn't give it to you.
    #
    # The Options directive is both complicated and important.  Please see
    # http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/core.html#options
    # for more information.
    #
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks

    #
    # AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
    # It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
    #   Options FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
    #
    AllowOverride All

    #
    # Controls who can get stuff from this server.
    #
    Require all granted
</Directory>

重启Apache

systemctl restart httpd.service

在linode的DNS manager那里新增一个新的domain,在服务器列表里面选中对应的服务器就可以了,然后就可以看到对应的域名解析信息。
域名转移会要求一个key,从原注册商那里解锁并获得,在Godday输入Key后,它会发邮件与你确认,然后将DNS域名服务器改为linode的域名服务器就好了。

Let’s Encrypt提供免费90天的SSL证书,如果证书到期了就需要再次更新下。如果你有shell权限,它推荐使用Cerbot来安装和更新证书。CentOS 7 + Apache的安装非常简单。首先安装EPEL源,要不然找不到对应的安装包

yum install epel-release
yum install certbot-apache
certbot --authenticator webroot --installer apache

设置一下域名,网站目录及域名重定向

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Plugins selected: Authenticator webroot, Installer apache
Enter email address (used for urgent renewal and security notices) (Enter 'c' to
cancel): <email@example.com>
Starting new HTTPS connection (1): acme-v01.api.letsencrypt.org

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Please read the Terms of Service at
https://letsencrypt.org/documents/LE-SA-v1.2-November-15-2017.pdf. You must
agree in order to register with the ACME server at
https://acme-v01.api.letsencrypt.org/directory
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(A)gree/(C)ancel: A

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Would you be willing to share your email address with the Electronic Frontier
Foundation, a founding partner of the Let's Encrypt project and the non-profit
organization that develops Certbot? We'd like to send you email about EFF and
our work to encrypt the web, protect its users and defend digital rights.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(Y)es/(N)o: Y
Starting new HTTPS connection (1): supporters.eff.org
No names were found in your configuration files. Please enter in your domain
name(s) (comma and/or space separated)  (Enter 'c' to cancel): courages.us
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for courages.us
Input the webroot for courages.us: (Enter 'c' to cancel): /var/www/html
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges

We were unable to find a vhost with a ServerName or Address of courages.us.
Which virtual host would you like to choose?
(note: conf files with multiple vhosts are not yet supported)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1: ssl.conf                       |                       | HTTPS | Enabled
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Press 1 [enter] to confirm the selection (press 'c' to cancel): 1
Deploying Certificate for courages.us to VirtualHost /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf

Please choose whether or not to redirect HTTP traffic to HTTPS, removing HTTP access.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1: No redirect - Make no further changes to the webserver configuration.
2: Redirect - Make all requests redirect to secure HTTPS access. Choose this for
new sites, or if you're confident your site works on HTTPS. You can undo this
change by editing your web server's configuration.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Select the appropriate number [1-2] then [enter] (press 'c' to cancel): 2
Created redirect file: le-redirect-courages.us.conf
Rollback checkpoint is empty (no changes made?)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Congratulations! You have successfully enabled https://courages.us

You should test your configuration at:
https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=courages.us
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

在浏览器访问一下域名即有小绿钥匙。可以在/etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf查看相应的SSL证书配置

<VirtualHost _default_:443>
ServerName courages.us
SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/courages.us/cert.pem
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/courages.us/privkey.pem
Include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-apache.conf
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/courages.us/chain.pem
</VirtualHost>

由于证书在90天后即将失效,可以加入crontab自动更新

certbot renew --dry-run
crontab -e

0 0,12 * * * python -c 'import random; import time; time.sleep(random.random() * 3600)' && certbot renew 

最近登录后台发现WordPress提示升级到PHP 7.3,按照它的指示

在CentOS 7上升级PHP5.4 到PHP 7.3很简单:
首先安装Remi和EPEL仓库

yum install wget
wget https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm
wget http://rpms.remirepo.net/enterprise/remi-release-7.rpm
rpm -Uvh remi-release-7.rpm 
rpm -Uvh epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm

yum install yum-utils

启用remi-php73的源,yum update升级会自动升级PHP及扩展

[root@li846-239 ~]# yum-config-manager --enable remi-php73
[root@li846-239 ~]# yum repolist
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.linode.com
 * epel: kartolo.sby.datautama.net.id
 * extras: mirrors.linode.com
 * remi-php73: mirror.xeonbd.com
 * remi-safe: mirror.xeonbd.com
 * updates: mirrors.linode.com
repo id                                                                                                   repo name                                                   status
base/7/x86_64                                                                                             CentOS-7 - Base                                              10,019
epel/x86_64                                                                                               Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 7 - x86_64               13,051
extras/7/x86_64                                                                                           CentOS-7 - Extras                                               385
remi-php73                                                                                                Remi's PHP 7.3 RPM repository for Enterprise Linux 7 - x86_64   305
remi-safe                                                                                                 Safe Remi's RPM repository for Enterprise Linux 7 - x86_64    3,188
updates/7/x86_64                                                                                          CentOS-7 - Updates                                            1,511
repolist: 28,825


yum update -y

检查PHP版本,重启Apache

[root@li846-239 ~]# php -v
PHP 7.3.4 (cli) (built: Apr  2 2019 13:48:50) ( NTS )
Copyright (c) 1997-2018 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v3.3.4, Copyright (c) 1998-2018 Zend Technologies
[root@li846-239 ~]# systemctl restart httpd

也可以禁用对应PHP版本的源,选择性升级PHP到对应版本

yum-config-manager --disable remi-php72

顺便升级下php-mcrypt和ZipArchive

yum install php-mcrypt
yum install php-pecl-zip

参考链接:
How To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack On CentOS 7
How to enable EPEL repository?
How to Secure Your Server
Introduction to FirewallD on CentOS
How to Upgrade PHP 5.6 to PHP 7.2 on CentOS VestaCP