标签归档:c

PHP 扩展开发之C

前面介绍了使用Zephir来开发PHP扩展,将PHP代码转为扩展,以提升性能,保护代码。目前更多的扩展都是采用C/C++开发的,最近在项目开发中,需要在这些已有的PHP扩展上开发,也只能用C/C++来开发了。

首先去PHP官网下载对应版本的PHP源码,解压并进入对应的目录。
创建扩展courages:

[vagrant@vagrant-centos64 ext]$ ./ext_skel
./ext_skel --extname=module [--proto=file] [--stubs=file] [--xml[=file]]
           [--skel=dir] [--full-xml] [--no-help]

  --extname=module   module is the name of your extension
  --proto=file       file contains prototypes of functions to create
  --stubs=file       generate only function stubs in file
  --xml              generate xml documentation to be added to phpdoc-cvs
  --skel=dir         path to the skeleton directory
  --full-xml         generate xml documentation for a self-contained extension
                     (not yet implemented)
  --no-help          don't try to be nice and create comments in the code
                     and helper functions to test if the module compiled
[vagrant@vagrant-centos64 ext]$ ./ext_skel --extname=courages
Creating directory courages
Creating basic files: config.m4 config.w32 .svnignore courages.c php_courages.h CREDITS EXPERIMENTAL tests/001.phpt courages.php [done].

To use your new extension, you will have to execute the following steps:

1.  $ cd ..
2.  $ vi ext/courages/config.m4
3.  $ ./buildconf
4.  $ ./configure --[with|enable]-courages
5.  $ make
6.  $ ./sapi/cli/php -f ext/courages/courages.php
7.  $ vi ext/courages/courages.c
8.  $ make

Repeat steps 3-6 until you are satisfied with ext/courages/config.m4 and
step 6 confirms that your module is compiled into PHP. Then, start writing
code and repeat the last two steps as often as necessary.

这里的步骤说的很清楚,但这一次,步骤3被phpize代替了。

按部就班,编辑config.m4,PHP_ARG_WITH是采用动态库方式加载(PHP_ARG_ENABLE则是编译内核中,configure是–enable-extension使用),将

dnl PHP_ARG_WITH(courages, whether to enable courages support,
dnl Make sure that the comment is aligned:
dnl [  --with-courages             Include courages support])

更改为

PHP_ARG_WITH(courages, for courages support,
[  --with-courages             Include courages support])

然后,在php_courages.h增加函数声明

PHP_FUNCTION(confirm_courages_compiled);	/* For testing, remove later. */
PHP_FUNCTION(courages_helloworld);

接着,编辑courages.c,在function_entry中增加函数注册

const zend_function_entry courages_functions[] = {
	PHP_FE(confirm_courages_compiled,	NULL)		/* For testing, remove later. */
 	PHP_FE(courages_helloworld,  NULL)
	PHP_FE_END	/* Must be the last line in courages_functions[] */
};

然后是courages_helloworld函数实现

PHP_FUNCTION(courages_helloworld)
{
        char *arg = NULL;
	int arg_len, len;
	char *strg;
	if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS() TSRMLS_CC, "s", &arg, &arg_len) == FAILURE) {
		return;
	}
	len = spprintf(&strg, 0, "Your input string: %s/n", arg);
	php_printf(strg);
	return SUCCESS;
}

最后就是编译

phpize
./configure
sudo make
sudo make install

sudo vim /etc/php.ini

在php.ini中增加扩展courages.so

[courages]
extension = courages.so

测试一下

[vagrant@vagrant-centos64 courages]$ php -m | grep 'courages'
courages

[vagrant@vagrant-centos64 courages]$ php courages.php
Functions available in the test extension:
confirm_courages_compiled
courages_helloworld

Your input string: hellow world
Congratulations! You have successfully modified ext/courages/config.m4. Module courages is now compiled into PHP.

到这里一个扩展的开发流程就结束了。

这里分享一些小技巧。
首先是如何在PHP扩展中获取PHP全局数组$_SERVER($_POST/GET)变量中的值:

static char *get_server_var_by_name(char *str){
	// This code makes sure $_SERVER has been initialized
	if (!zend_hash_exists(&EG(symbol_table), "_SERVER", 8)) {
		zend_auto_global* auto_global;
		if (zend_hash_find(CG(auto_globals), "_SERVER", 8, (void **)&auto_global) != FAILURE) {
			auto_global->armed = auto_global->auto_global_callback(auto_global->name, auto_global->name_len TSRMLS_CC);
		}
	}

	// This fetches $_SERVER['PHP_SELF']
	zval** arr;
	char* script_name;
	if (zend_hash_find(&EG(symbol_table), "_SERVER", 8, (void**)&arr) != FAILURE) {
		HashTable* ht = Z_ARRVAL_P(*arr);
		zval** val;
		if (zend_hash_find(ht, str, strlen(str)+1, (void**)&val) != FAILURE) {
			script_name = Z_STRVAL_PP(val);
		}
	}
	return script_name;
}

然后是如何在PHP扩展调用PHP函数:

/*调用无参数函数*/
static char *get_sapi_name(){
    zval *function_name;
    zval *retval;
	char *sapi_name;

    MAKE_STD_ZVAL(function_name);
    ZVAL_STRING(function_name , "php_sapi_name", 1);


    if (call_user_function_ex(EG(function_table), NULL, function_name, &retval, 0, NULL, 0, EG(active_symbol_table) TSRMLS_CC) != SUCCESS)
    {
        zend_error(E_ERROR, "Function call failed");
    }

    if (retval != NULL && Z_TYPE_P(retval) != IS_STRING) {
        convert_to_string(retval);
        sapi_name = Z_STRVAL_P(retval);
    }
    else{
	sapi_name = "cli";
    }

    return sapi_name;
}
/*调用有参数函数*/
static int _ck_dir(char *dir TSRMLS_DC)
{
    zval *function_name;
    zval *retval;
    zval *str;
    zval **param[1];

    MAKE_STD_ZVAL(function_name);
    ZVAL_STRING(function_name , "is_dir", 1);

    MAKE_STD_ZVAL(str);
    ZVAL_STRING(str, dir, 1);
    param[0] = &str;

    if (call_user_function_ex(EG(function_table), NULL, function_name, &retval, 1, param, 0, EG(active_symbol_table) TSRMLS_CC) != SUCCESS)
    {
        zend_error(E_ERROR, "Function call failed");
    }

    if (retval != NULL && zval_is_true(retval)) {
        return SUCCESS;
    }

    return FAILURE;
}

更高级的一些技巧可以参考《PHP扩展开发及内核应用》和阅读别人的扩展开发代码。

参考链接:
php扩展实战 —— 获得ip的来源地址
如何编写一个PHP的C扩展
[原创]快速开发一个PHP扩展
用C/C++扩展你的PHP
Get the name of running script from a PHP extension
Build PHP extension and use call_user_function
Programming PHP
与 UNIX 构建系统交互: config.m4
call_user_function_ex() documentation
PHP Extensions Made Eldrich: PHP Variables
Convert Zval to char*
PHP扩展编写第一步:PHP和Zend介绍
PHP扩展开发:简单类实现
自己写PHP扩展之创建一个类[原创]
如何在扩展里调用PHP函数呢?