PHP队列开发之Beanstalk

Beanstalk是一个基于内存的(binlog持久化到硬盘),事件驱动(libevent),简单、快速的任务队列,支持大部分编程语言,将前台的任务转为后台异步处理,为web开发提供更高弹性。它可以支持多个server(客户端支持),一个任务只会被投递到一台server,一个任务只会被一个消费者获取(Reverse)。

相比RabbitMQ,Beanstalk作为一个任务队列,设计比较简单,支持以下特性:

  • 优先级(priority),可以对任务进行优先处理(或降级),越小的值优先级越高(0~4,294,967,295),默认按先进先出(FIFO)
  • 延迟执行(delay),一个任务创建完成并稍后再执行(比如等待主从同步)
  • 超时重试(TTR),一个任务没有在指定时间内完成,将会被重新投递,由其他客户端处理。客户端也可以主动进行延时(touch)或重新入队(release)
  • 隐藏(bury),一个任务执行失败了,可以先隐藏,隐藏的任务可以被重新激活(kick);

一个任务如果没有被删除,那么它就可以被重新获取。下面是大多数任务的生命周期:

   put with delay               release with delay
  ----------------> [DELAYED] <------------.
                        |                   |
                        | (time passes)     |
                        |                   |
   put                  v     reserve       |       delete
  -----------------> [READY] ---------> [RESERVED] --------> *poof*
                       ^  ^                |  |
                       |   \  release      |  |
                       |    `-------------'   |
                       |                      |
                       | kick                 |
                       |                      |
                       |       bury           |
                    [BURIED] <---------------'
                       |
                       |  delete
                        `--------> *poof*

CentOS下安装Beanstalkd

sudo yum install beanstalkd
#启动beanstalk
sudo service beanstalkd start
#beanstalkd -l 192.168.33.14 -p 11300

PHP下面有个C扩展beanstalk库可以使用,基于libbeanstalkclient

git clone https://github.com/bergundy/libbeanstalkclient.git
cd libbeanstalkclient
mkdir m4
#开始编译
sudo ./autogen.sh

#创建libbeanstalkclient.conf,内容为/usr/lib
sudo vim /etc/ld.so.conf.d/libbeanstalkclient.conf
#使配置生效
sudo ldconfig

git clone https://github.com/nil-zhang/php-beanstalk.git
cd php-beanstalk
phpize
./configure
sudo make
sudo make install
sudo vim /etc/php.ini

编辑php.ini增加以下内容

[beanstalk]
extension = "beanstalk.so"

查看是否加载成功

php -m
#加载成功则重启php-fpm
sudo service php-fpm restart

PHP测试代码

<?php
    $bsc = new Beanstalk();

    $bsc->addserver("192.168.33.14", 11300);
    $bsc->addserver("192.168.33.12", 11300);

    $tubes = $bsc->list_tubes();
    print_r($tubes);

    for($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++)
    {
        $key = "key".$i;
        $value = "value".$i;

        $bsc->use($key);
        $bsc->put($key, $value);
        echo "$key\t$value\n";

        $bsc->watch($key);
        $job = $bsc->reserve($key);
        print_r($job);

        if($bsc->bury($job['id'], $key))
            echo "bury ok\n";
        else
            echo "bury failed\n";

        $bsc->kick(100, $key);
        if($bsc->delete($job['id'], $key))
            echo "delete ok\n";
        else
            echo "delete failed \n";

        $bsc->ignore($key);
        echo "\n";
    }

    echo "done\n";

注意由于Beanstalk服务端实现的比较简单,协议特性需要客户端支持,不同的实现可能效果不一样,这个客户端并没有实现延时发送(delay),超时重试(TTR)。需要这些特性建议使用这个库:PHP Beanstalkd。前台生产者创建任务:

<?php
include 'lib/Beanstalk.php';
$bean = Beanstalk::init();
$bean->addServer('192.168.33.14', 11300);
$bean->addServer('192.168.33.12', 11300);
$bean->useTube('my-tube');
$bean->put('Hello World!', 1024);
$bean->put('Hello World!2', 1023);
$bean->put(json_encode(array('what','how')), 1000, 1, 1);

后台消费者处理任务

include 'lib/Beanstalk.php';
$bean = Beanstalk::init();
$bean->addServer('192.168.33.12', 11300);
$bean->addServer('192.168.33.14', 11300);
$bean->watchTube('my-tube');

while (true)
{
	try
	{
		$job = $bean->reserve($timeout = 10);

		/* process job ... */
		var_dump($job);
		//var_dump($job->getMessage());

		$job->delete();
	}
	catch (BeanstalkException $e)
	{
		switch ($e->getCode())
		{
			case BeanstalkException::TIMED_OUT:
				echo "Timed out waiting for a job.  Retrying in 1 second.";
				sleep(1);
				continue;
				break;
			default:
				throw $e;
				break;
		}
	}
}

注意:客户端获取任务(reverse)是阻塞的(blocking),直到超时;同一个队列(tube)的任务按FIFO进行处理(除非指定优先级);任务内容长度不能超过65536;作为内存队列需要注意是否会内存超出,可以快速处理到Mysql。

使用Beanstalk任务队列提升PHP异步处理能力,降低程序耦合度,使前台更专注,后台处理耗时、扩展性任务(也可以使用其他语言开发),使得web架构更具扩展性。

参考链接:
Scalable Work Queues with Beanstalk
Beanstalk Protocol
Frequently Asked Questions for beanstalkd
Getting Started with Beanstalkd
Queue your work
Asynchronous Processing in Web Applications, Part 2: Developers Need to Understand Message Queues

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